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This article sheds a light on the role of the EU in environmental negotiations that are held under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). In particular, the EU decision-making processes with regard to the negotiations leading to the Aarhus Convention and to the SEA Protocol are examined. Based on extensive document research and in-depth interviews with policy makers involved in these negotiations, the article argues that the internal decision-making processes were rather chaotic because of diverging preferences in the EU. As a result, the greater part of both UNECE negotiation processes were not characterized by a strong EU actorness.1