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The International Court of Justice's (ICJ) decision in the Pulp Mills case provides a detailed consideration of the current status and content of a State's obligation to conduct transboundary environmental impact assessments (EIAs) in general international law. This article provides an overview and analysis of the ICJ's findings in respect of EIA obligations and places them in the context of associated duties in international law and considers the implications of the decision for the Espoo Convention.