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The emerging trend of shale gas extraction poses some new challenges to existing regulatory regimes worldwide, with most of the applicable regulatory regimes not explicitly covering unconventional gas resources. Particularly regarding water resources, there are some serious negative impacts and a lack of regulation concerning shale gas extraction. This article analyzes and compares some of the existing legal regimes in the United States and the European Union on water resources, and their abilities to cope with the impacts of shale gas extraction.