The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of a neuropsychological test battery relating to an on-the-road driving evaluation and to determine whether patients who failed the driving test could improve their driving through behind-the-wheel training. Thirty-four stroke patients were compared with 20 healthy, matched controls. Patients who failed the driving test were offered driving practice at a driving school and were then reassessed (neuropsychologically and practically). On most of the cognitive tests, patients performed significantly less well than control subjects. Almost 50% of the controls and the patients failed the driving evaluation. None of the neuropsychological tests was able to predict the driving outcome. Of the patients who failed the first driving evaluation, 85% passed the second evaluation after driving practice. There are few controlled studies focusing on the stroke population and the effect of behind-the-wheel training. It is suggested that more controlled studies are needed with more homogenous patient-groups and reliable and quantitative outcome measures.