Development and Aging
Cross-cultural temperamental differences in infants, children, and adults in the United States of America and Finland
Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Volume 53, Issue 2, pages 119–128, April 2012
How to Cite
GAIAS, L. M., RÄIKKÖNEN, K., KOMSI, N., GARTSTEIN, M. A., FISHER, P. A. and PUTNAM, S. P. (2012), Cross-cultural temperamental differences in infants, children, and adults in the United States of America and Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53: 119–128. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2012.00937.x
- Issue published online: 20 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012
- Received 20 July 2011, accepted 30 November 2011
- United States;
Gaias, L. M., Räikkönen, K., Komsi, N., Gartstein, M. A., Fisher, P. A. & Putnam, S. P. (2012). Cross-cultural temperamental differences in infants, children, and adults in the United States of America and Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 119–128.
Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the US during childhood and in Finland during adulthood.