• bootstrap confidence intervals;
  • central limit theorem;
  • forest biometry;
  • Kendall's shape spaces;
  • non-parametric inference;
  • strong consistency;
  • tree-stem ellipticality;
  • Ziezold means

Abstract.  The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) for extrinsic and intrinsic means on manifolds is extended to a generalization of Fréchet means. Examples are the Procrustes mean for 3D Kendall shapes as well as a mean introduced by Ziezold. This allows for one-sample tests previously not possible, and to numerically assess the ‘inconsistency of the Procrustes mean’ for a perturbation model and ‘inconsistency’ within a model recently proposed for diffusion tensor imaging. Also it is shown that the CLT can be extended to mildly rank deficient diffusion tensors. An application to forestry gives the temporal evolution of Douglas fir tree stems tending strongly towards cylinders at early ages and tending away with increased competition.