• accessibility;
  • spatial analysis;
  • participatory data gathering;
  • uplands;
  • Philippines

Improving household accessibility to basic community services can help reduce poverty in upland areas. In this study, spatial analysis with GIS was used to measure the accessibility of different household income groups to community services in the landlocked upland municipality Claveria in Northern Mindanao, the Philippines. Important community services were identified through villagers' participation in a matrix-scoring activity. Travel information was derived from key informant interviews while the geographical coordinates of sample households and important services were collected using GPS receivers. The Flowmap GIS software (version 7.2) was used to compute accessibility to services along the road network by habal-habal (two-wheel motorcycle). Outcomes from the participatory data gathering activities revealed that agricultural, educational and health facilities, as well as government services are important to the community to achieve sustainable livelihoods. Because local people perceive accessibility in terms of monetary costs, rather than distance, road distance measurements were converted into fare costs. Results of the accessibility analysis show that higher-income household groups generally incur lower mean one-way travel costs to reach important community services than poorer households. However, almost all households spend more than the daily per capita poverty threshold for the province to reach basic community services. A scenario to improve accessibility to services in the study area was investigated to emphasize the potential of GIS-based accessibility analysis in rural service planning.