This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant 218966. We thank Ben Hansen, Ed Ionides, Jeff Morenoff, Susan Murphy, and the anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments. Direct correspondence to Natalya Verbitsky Savitz, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 600 Maryland Ave., SW, Suite 550, Washington, DC 20024; email: NVSavitz@mathematica-mpr.com.
EXPLOITING SPATIAL DEPENDENCE TO IMPROVE MEASUREMENT OF NEIGHBORHOOD SOCIAL PROCESSES
Article first published online: 14 AUG 2009
© 2009 by American Sociological Association
Volume 39, Issue 1, pages 151–183, August 2009
How to Cite
Savitz, N. V. and Raudenbush, S. W. (2009), EXPLOITING SPATIAL DEPENDENCE TO IMPROVE MEASUREMENT OF NEIGHBORHOOD SOCIAL PROCESSES. Sociological Methodology, 39: 151–183. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9531.2009.01221.x
- Issue published online: 20 AUG 2009
- Article first published online: 14 AUG 2009
- 1988. Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models (Studies in Operational Regional Science). Dordrecht , Netherlands : Kluwer. .
- 2003. “Spatial Externalities, Spatial Multipliers, and Spatial Econometrics. International Regional Science Review 26:153–66. .
- 2005. “Empirical Bayes Estimation of Demographic Schedules for Small Areas. Demography 42:537–58. , , , and .
- 2004. Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data. Boca Raton , FL : Chapman and Hall. , , and .
- 1974. “Spatial Interaction and the Statistical Analysis of Lattice Systems. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 36:192–236. .
- 2004. “Statistical and Substantive Inferences in Public Health: Issues in the Application of Multilevel Models. Annual Review of Public Health 25:53–77. , and .
- 2005. “Neighborhood Level Spatial Analysis of the Relationship Between Alcohol Outlet Density and Criminal Violence. Environmental and Ecological Statistics 12:411–26. , , , and .
- 2002. “The Span of Collective Efficacy: Extending Social Disorganization Theory to Partner Violence. Journal of Marriage and the Family 64(4):833–50.
- 2005. “Sexual Initiation in Early Adolescence: The Nexus of Parental and Community Control. American Sociological Review 70(5):758–78. , , and .
- 2003. “Neighborhood Support and the Birth Weight of Urban Infants. American Journal of Epidemiology 157(1):1–8. , , , , and .
- 1974. “Empirical Bayes Methods Applied to Estimating Fire Alarm Probabilities. Journal of the American Statistical Association 69:880–85. , and .
- 1987. “Empirical Bayes Estimates of Age-Standardized Relative Risks for Use in Disease Mapping. Biometrics 43:671–81. , and .
- 1977. “Maximum Likelihood from Incomplete Data Via the EM Algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 39:1–38. , , and .
- 2004. “The Study of Group-Level Factors in Epidemiology: Rethinking Variables, Study Designs, and Analytical Approaches. Epidemiologic Reviews 26:104–11.
- 1999. “Assessing the Effects of Context in Studies of Child and Youth Development. Educational Psychologist 34(1):29–41. , and .
- 1972a. “Empirical Bayes on Vector Observations: An Extension of Stein's Method. Biometrika 59:335–47. , and .
- 1972b. “Limiting the Risk of Bayes and Empirical Bayes Estimators—Part II: The Empirical Bayes Case. Journal of the American Statistical Association 67:130–39. , and .
- 1973. “Stein's Estimation Rule and Its Competitors—An Empirical Bayes Approach. Journal of the American Statistical Association 68:117–30. , and .
- 1975. “Data Analysis Using Stein's Estimator and Its Generalizations. Journal of the American Statistical Association 70:311–19. , and .
- 1977. “Stein's Paradox in Statistics. Scientific American 36:119–27. , and .
- 2007. “The Influence of Neighborhood Poverty During Childhood on Fertility, Education, and Earnings Outcomes. Housing Studies 22(5):723–51. , , , , and .
- 2002. Multilevel Statistical Models. 3rd ed. London , UK : A Hodder Arnold Publication. .
- 1971. “Estimating Regressions in m Groups. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 24:129–53. , , and .
- 1961. “Estimation with Quadratic Loss. Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability 1:361–79. , and .
- 2000. “The Neighborhoods They Live in: The Effects of Neighborhood Residence on Child and Adolescent Outcomes. Psychological Bulletin 126:309–37. , and .
- 1971. “The Estimation of Many Parameters.” Pp. 435–55 in Foundations of Statistical Inference, edited by V. P.Godambe and D. A.Sprott. Toronto : Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada .
- 1999. “Multivariate Shrinkage Estimation of Small Area Means and Proportions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 162(2):227–45.
- 1991. “Mapping Disease and Mortality Rates Using Empirical Bayes Estimators. Applied Statistics 40:283–94.
- 2005. “Fear of Crime in Brisbane: Individual, Social and Neighborhood Factors in Perspective. Journal of Sociology 41(1):7–27. , , , and .
- 2004. “Unsafe to Play? Neighborhood Disorder and Lack of Safety Predict Reduced Physical Activity Among Urban Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Health Promotion 18(5):378–86. , , , and .
- 2003. “Neighborhood Mechanisms and the Spatial Dynamics of Birth Weight. American Journal of Sociology 108(5):976–1017.
- 1997. “Violent Crime and the Spatial Dynamics of Neighborhood Transition: Chicago 1970–1990. Social Forces 76(1):31–64. , and .
- 2001. “Neighborhood Inequality, Collective Efficacy, and the Spatial Dynamics of Urban Violence. Criminology 39(3):517–59. , , and .
- 1983. “Parametric Empirical Bayes Inference: Theory and Applications. Journal of the American Statistical Association 78(381):47–55.
- 1972. “Estimating Multiple Regressions in m Groups: A Cross-Validation Study. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 25:33–50. , , , and .
- 2004. “The (Mis)estimation of Neighborhood Effects: Causal Inference for a Practicable Social Epidemiology. Social Science and Medicine 58(10):1929–52. .
- 1975. “Estimation Methods for Models of Spatial Interaction. Journal of the American Statistical Association 70:120–26. .
- 1988. “Educational Applications of Hierarchical Linear Models: A Review. Journal of Educational Statistics 13:85–116.
- 2002. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks , CA : Sage. , and .
- A Multilevel, Multivariate Model for Studying School Climate in Secondary Schools with Estimation via the EM Algorithm. Journal of Educational Statistics 16(4):295–330. , , and . l991. “
- 1999a. “Ecometrics: Toward a Science of Assessing Ecological Settings, with Application to the Systematic Social Observation of Neighborhoods. Sociological Methodology 29:1–41. , and .
- 1999b. “Assessing Direct and Indirect Effects in Multilevel Designs with Latent Variables. Sociological Methods & Research 28(2):123–53. , and .
- 1999. “Beyond Social Capital: Spatial Dynamics of Collective Efficacy for Children. American Sociological Review 64:633–60. , , and .
- 1999. “Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods. American Journal of Sociology 105:603–51. , and .
- 2003. “Seeing Disorder: Neighborhood Stigma and the Social Construction of ‘Broken Windows’. Social Psychology Quarterly 67(4):319–42. , and .
- 1997. “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy. Science 277:918–24. , , and .
- 1996. “Bayesian Analysis in the Applications of Hierarchical Models: Issues and Methods. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 21:131–67. , , and .
- 1942. Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas: A Study of Delinquents in Relation to Differential Characteristics of Local Communities. Chicago , IL : University of Chicago Press. , and .
- 1956. “Inadmissibility of the Usual Estimator for the Mean of a Multivariate Normal Distribution. Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability 1:197–206. .
- 1985. “Empirical Bayes Estimation of Cancer Mortality Rates. Statistics in Medicine 4:201–12. , , and .
- 2007. “Associational and Causal Inference in Spatial Hierarchical Settings : Theory and Applications.” PhD dissertation, Department of Statistics, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , MI . .
- 2007. “Commentary: Area Social Cohesion, Deprivation and Mental Health—Does Misery Love Company International Journal of Epidemiology 36(2):345–47.