Rituals of Solidarity and Security in the Wake of Terrorist Attack
Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2004
Volume 22, Issue 1, pages 53–87, March 2004
How to Cite
Collins, R. (2004), Rituals of Solidarity and Security in the Wake of Terrorist Attack. Sociological Theory, 22: 53–87. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9558.2004.00204.x
- Issue online: 18 FEB 2004
- Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2004
Conflict produces group solidarity in four phases: (1) an initial few days of shock and idiosyncratic individual reactions to attack; (2) one to two weeks of establishing standardized displays of solidarity symbols; (3) two to three months of high solidarity plateau; and (4) gradual decline toward normalcy in six to nine months. Solidarity is not uniform but is clustered in local groups supporting each other's symbolic behavior. Actual solidarity behaviors are performed by minorities of the population, while vague verbal claims to performance are made by large majorities. Commemorative rituals intermittently revive high emotional peaks; participants become ranked according to their closeness to a center of ritual attention. Events, places, and organizations claim importance by associating themselves with national solidarity rituals and especially by surrounding themselves with pragmatically ineffective security ritual. Conflicts arise over access to centers of ritual attention; clashes occur between pragmatists deritualizing security and security zealots attempting to keep up the level of emotional intensity. The solidarity plateau is also a hysteria zone; as a center of emotional attention, it attracts ancillary attacks unrelated to the original terrorists as well as alarms and hoaxes. In particular historical circumstances, it becomes a period of atrocities.