• phonological awareness;
  • literacy instruction;
  • reading intervention;
  • speech and language disorder

The longer-term effectiveness of phonological awareness intervention for children with reading difficulty is likely to be influenced by the quality of general classroom instruction. This descriptive project used a case study design to follow the literacy progress of three children aged six and seven years with speech and language impairment after responding strongly to an intensive phonological awareness intervention. The study analysed the opportunities provided in the children's general classroom programme within the New Zealand English curriculum for ongoing facilitation of phonological awareness skills. Findings indicated that the classroom environment provided multiple opportunities for implicit teaching of phonological awareness skills which may have contributed to the children's ability to maintain skills taught within the intervention. Children with significant reading difficulties underpinned by poor phonological awareness are likely to require ongoing access to intensive intervention in addition to quality classroom instruction.