This paper describes recent and ongoing processes of technological change in agriculture, which has become a highly R&D-intensive sector in many countries of the Asia-Pacific region. It also considers the role of various forms of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in promoting such technological changes and in affecting their diffusion through the region. A central part of the discussion is a review of how these various IPRs operate and are protected in major economies of the region. There is an assessment of the economic interests of key countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, China, Japan and the Republic of Korea, in global and regional policy evolution in agricultural IPRs. These interests are a mix of comparative advantage in farming, which is quite distinctive among these countries, and the technological basis of production, which is more convergent. A review of available measures of innovation in the region suggests that all of these economies are active in developing new agricultural technologies, although there is considerable specialisation in the types of processes developed. Given this mix of divergence in comparative costs and convergence in technology interests, it is difficult to describe sharply the preferences these economies may have in continued globalisation of agricultural IPRs. However, the analysis points to some areas in which countries may continue to specialise – thereby retaining the ability to remain in specific areas of farming – and other fields in which international collaboration may be sensible.