Colinguals among bilinguals



ABSTRACT:  Discussions about intranational uses of English tend to follow the predominant theme of international uses, namely communication between people who do not have the same native language (L1). But how often do compatriots who share an L1 speak L2 English with each other? In other words, how many of a country's bilinguals are also colinguals? If citizens are not speaking English with each other, does it make sense for their educators, literati, or politicians to claim that they have their own national variety? Is spoken discourse the prime mover that generates independent canons? That is, does abundance or lack of speech interaction in intranational contexts act as a touchstone for separating norm-providing varieties (e.g. Indian English) from norm-dependent varieties (e.g. so-called “Japanese English”)? These questions serve to reinforce the tripartite classification of Kachru's model, with a focus on the similarities between the Inner and Outer Circles, counterbalancing the tendency to combine the Outer and Expanding Circles.