English as an international lingua franca: from societal to individual



ABSTRACT:  This paper takes up three topics for discussion. The first is whether the Kachruvian three-circle model can accommodate the possible change of English use (e.g. native/non-native to individual proficiency, a special talent to a basic skill). The second is what transformation English would undergo if it survives as English as an international language (EIL)/English as lingua franca (ELF). The third topic is the possibility of creating what can be called a ‘supra-normative (not exo-/endo-normative) standard’ for EIL/ELF for pedagogic purposes (e.g. lingua franca core).