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Examining teachers' beliefs about and implementation of a balanced literacy framework


Gary E. Bingham, PhD, Department of Early Childhood Education, Georgia State University, 30 Pryor Street, Suite 550, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. E-mail:


While many embrace balanced literacy as a framework for quality literacy instruction, the way in which teachers operationalise the tenets of balanced literacy can vary greatly. In the present study, 581 teachers in the United States completed questionnaires concerning: (a) their beliefs about literacy skills and literacy instructional strategies that are most essential to reading success; and (b) their implementation of balanced literacy instruction in their classrooms. Results reveal that teachers varied in their implementation of reading and writing routines, with teachers reporting participating less frequently in writing activities. Teachers' implementation of balanced literacy routines varied as a function of the grade level they taught, but not additional certifications or years of experience. In addition, teachers' participation in reading and writing routines was related to their literacy beliefs, particularly their belief in the importance of code-based literacy skills.