• B-splines;
  • Functional linear model;
  • Functional principal component regression;
  • Generalized cross-validation;
  • Linear mixed model;
  • Roughness penalty

Summary.  Spline-based approaches to non-parametric and semiparametric regression, as well as to regression of scalar outcomes on functional predictors, entail choosing a parameter controlling the extent to which roughness of the fitted function is penalized. We demonstrate that the equations determining two popular methods for smoothing parameter selection, generalized cross-validation and restricted maximum likelihood, share a similar form that allows us to prove several results which are common to both, and to derive a condition under which they yield identical values. These ideas are illustrated by application of functional principal component regression, a method for regressing scalars on functions, to two chemometric data sets.