• Periodic correlation;
  • spectral analysis;
  • coherence statistic;
  • ARMA model;
  • PARMA model;
  • Yule-Walker estimation

Abstract. A 50-year time series of monthly stratospheric ozone readings from Arosa, Switzerland, is analyzed. The time series exhibits the properties of a periodically correlated (PC) random sequence with annual periodicities. Spectral properties of PC random sequences are reviewed and a test to detect periodic correlation is presented. An autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model with periodically varying coefficients (PARMA) is fitted to the data in two stages. First, a periodic autoregressive model is fitted to the data. This fit yields residuals that are stationary but non-white. Next, a stationary ARMA model is fitted to the residuals and the two models are combined to produce a larger model for the data. The combined model is shown to be a PARMA model and yields residuals that have the correlation properties of white noise.