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Keywords:

  • Rounding error;
  • autoregressive process;
  • accumulative rounded autoregressive model;
  • conditional maximum-likelihood estimation
  • Preliminary 62M10, 62F10;
  • Secondary 62F12, 62F05

In considering the rounding impact of an autoregressive (AR) process, there are two different models available to be considered. The first assumes that the dynamic system follows an underlying AR model and only the observations are rounded up to a certain precision. The second assumes that the updated observation is a rounded version of an autoregression on previous rounded observations. This article considers the second model and examines behaviour of rounding impacts to the statistical inferences. The conditional maximum-likelihood estimates for the model are proposed and their asymptotic properties are established, including strong consistency and asymptotic normality. Furthermore, both the classical AR model and the ordinary rounded AR model are no longer reliable when dealing with accumulated rounding errors. The three models are also applied to fit the Ocean Wave data. It turns out that the estimates under distinct models are significantly different. Based on our findings, we strongly recommend that models for dealing with rounded data should be in accordance with the actions of rounding errors.