We would like to thank Harriet Wood Bowden, Helen Carpenter, David Birdsong, Mandy Faretta, Ron Leow, Marco Piñeyro, and John Stowe for their invaluable support in various aspects of the project. We are also grateful for the helpful comments offered by Jean-Marc Dewaele and two anonymous reviewers. Any errors or omissions are ours alone. Previous versions of this study were presented at Second Language Research Forum in 2008 and at the annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society in 2009. Support for this project was provided to MTU by the National Institute of Health under RO1 MH58189 and RO1 HD049347 and by the National Science Foundation under Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant 0446836; to KMS by a Georgetown University Dissertation Fellowship and by the National Institute of Health under Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award 1 F31 MH67407-01A1 from the NIMH; and to KS by the Canada Research Chair program and the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CRC/CFI; project 201876) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC; RGPGP 312835).
Second Language Acquisition of Gender Agreement in Explicit and Implicit Training Conditions: An Event-Related Potential Study
Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2010
© 2010 Language Learning Research Club, University of Michigan
Volume 60, Issue 1, pages 154–193, March 2010
How to Cite
Morgan-Short, K., Sanz, C., Steinhauer, K. and Ullman, M. T. (2010), Second Language Acquisition of Gender Agreement in Explicit and Implicit Training Conditions: An Event-Related Potential Study. Language Learning, 60: 154–193. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00554.x
- Issue online: 17 FEB 2010
- Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2010
- Revised version accepted 15 September 2009
- second language acquisition;
- event-related potentials;
- language processing;
This study employed an artificial language learning paradigm together with a combined behavioral/event-related potential (ERP) approach to examine the neurocognition of the processing of gender agreement, an aspect of inflectional morphology that is problematic in adult second language (L2) learning. Subjects learned to speak and comprehend an artificial language under either explicit (classroomlike) or implicit (immersionlike) training conditions. In each group, both noun-article and noun-adjective gender agreement processing were examined behaviorally and with ERPs at both low and higher levels of proficiency. Results showed that the two groups learned the language to similar levels of proficiency but showed somewhat different ERP patterns. At low proficiency, both types of agreement violations (adjective, article) yielded N400s, but only for the group with implicit training. Additionally, noun-adjective agreement elicited a late N400 in the explicit group at low proficiency. At higher levels of proficiency, noun-adjective agreement violations elicited N400s for both the explicit and implicit groups, whereas noun-article agreement violations elicited P600s for both groups. The results suggest that interactions among linguistic structure, proficiency level, and type of training need to be considered when examining the development of aspects of inflectional morphology in L2 acquisition.