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The Relative Effects of Explicit Correction and Recasts on Two Target Structures via Two Communication Modes


  • The research reported in this article was made possible by a postdoctoral fellowship awarded by the Language Research Center at the University of Calgary. This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 2009 annual conference of the American Association for Applied Linguistics in Denver. I would like to thank Susanne Carroll for her excellent advice in conducting this research. I am most grateful to Gisela Granena for her advice, encouragement, and insightful comments. Final responsibility for any errors remains my own.

Yucel Yilmaz, Sakarya University, Foreign Language Education, Sakarya Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Hendek Sakarya 54300, Turkey. Internet:


This study investigated the effects of negative feedback type (i.e., explicit correction vs. recasts), communication mode (i.e., face-to-face communication vs. synchronous computer-mediated communication), and target structure salience (i.e., salient vs. nonsalient) on the acquisition of two Turkish morphemes. Forty-eight native speakers of English with no Turkish background carried out two communicative tasks during which their errors on the target structures were treated according to their feedback group. Oral production, comprehension, and recognition tests were used to measure learners’ resulting performance. A clear advantage was found for explicit correction over recasts in the oral production and comprehension tasks on both immediate and delayed posttests. Results also showed that neither communication mode nor target structure salience moderated the difference between the negative feedback types but both factors made independent contributions to feedback effectiveness.