SA HealthPlus, one of nine national Australian coordinated care trials, addressed chronic illness care by testing whether coordinated care would improve health outcomes at the cost of usual care. SA HealthPlus compared a generic model of coordinated care for 3,115 intervention patients with the usual care for 1,488 controls. Service coordinators and the behavioral and care-planning approach were new. The health status (SF-36) in six of eight projects improved, and those patients who had been hospitalized in the year immediately preceding the trial were the most likely to save on costs. A mid-trial review found that health benefits from coordinated care depended more on patients' self-management than the severity of their illness, a factor leading to the Flinders Model of Self-Management Support.