Physical Activity and Food Environments: Solutions to the Obesity Epidemic
Article first published online: 11 MAR 2009
© 2009 Milbank Memorial Fund
The Milbank Quarterly
Volume 87, Issue 1, pages 123–154, March 2009
How to Cite
SALLIS, J. F. and GLANZ, K. (2009), Physical Activity and Food Environments: Solutions to the Obesity Epidemic. Milbank Quarterly, 87: 123–154. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00550.x
- Issue published online: 11 MAR 2009
- Article first published online: 11 MAR 2009
- Built environment;
- health behavior;
- ecological models
Context: Environmental, policy, and societal changes are important contributors to the rapid rise in obesity over the past few decades, and there has been substantial progress toward identifying environmental and policy factors related to eating and physical activity that can point toward solutions. This article is a status report on research on physical activity and food environments, and it suggests how these findings can be used to improve diet and physical activity and to control or reduce obesity.
Methods: This article summarizes and synthesizes recent reviews and provides examples of representative studies. It also describes ongoing innovative interventions and policy change efforts that were identified through conference presentations, media coverage, and websites.
Findings: Numerous cross-sectional studies have consistently demonstrated that some attributes of built and food environments are associated with physical activity, healthful eating, and obesity. Residents of walkable neighborhoods who have good access to recreation facilities are more likely to be physically active and less likely to be overweight or obese. Residents of communities with ready access to healthy foods also tend to have more healthful diets. Disparities in environments and policies that disadvantage low-income communities and racial minorities have been documented as well. Evidence from multilevel studies, prospective research, and quasi-experimental evaluations of environmental changes are just beginning to emerge.
Conclusions: Environment, policy, and multilevel strategies for improving diet, physical activity, and obesity control are recommended based on a rapidly growing body of research and the collective wisdom of leading expert organizations. A public health imperative to identify and implement solutions to the obesity epidemic warrants the use of the most promising strategies while continuing to build the evidence base.