What We Talk about When We Talk about Risk: Refining Surgery's Hazards in Medical Thought
Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012
© 2012 Milbank Memorial Fund
Volume 90, Issue 1, pages 135–159, March 2012
How to Cite
NEUMAN, M. D. and BOSK, C. L. (2012), What We Talk about When We Talk about Risk: Refining Surgery's Hazards in Medical Thought. Milbank Quarterly, 90: 135–159. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00657.x
- Issue published online: 19 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012
- Anonymous. 1942. A Textbook of Surgery, by American authors (book review). JAMA 120:85.
- 1992. A Comparison of Results of Meta-analyses of Randomized Control Trials and Recommendations of Clinical Experts: Treatments for Myocardial Infarction. JAMA 268:240–48. , , , , and .
- 1964. Mortality and Morbidity in Surgical Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. JAMA 190:485–88. , , and .
- 1998. The Social Construction of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors. In Making Sense of Illness: Science, Society, and Disease, 111–44. New York : Cambridge University Press.
- 2009. The Converged Experience of Risk and Disease. The Milbank Quarterly 87:417–42.
- 2000. Multifactorial Risk Index for Predicting Postoperative Respiratory Failure in Men after Major Noncardiac Surgery. National Veterans Administration Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Annals of Surgery 232:242–53. , , , and .
- 1967. Preoperative Evaluation of the Surgical Patient. In Manual of Preoperative and Postoperative Care, ed. H.T. Randall, J.T. Hardy, and F.D. Moore, 6–14. Philadelphia : Saunders.
- 1968. Computers in Patient Care. New England Journal of Medicine 279:1321–27.
- 2002. Health Decision Aids to Facilitate Shared Decision Making in Office Practice. Annals of Internal Medicine 136:127–35.
- 1992. Risk Society: Toward a New Modernity. London : Sage.
- 1960. Roles and Innovations in Medicine. American Journal of Sociology 65:557–68.
- 1995. Turning a Practice into a Science: Reconceptualizing Postwar Medical Practice. Social Studies of Science 25:437–76.
- 2003. Disseminating Innovations in Health Care. JAMA 289:1969–75.
- 1971. The Computer as a Consultant. New England Journal of Medicine 284:141–47.
- 2005. High and Rising Health Care Costs. Part 1: Seeking an Explanation. Annals of Internal Medicine 142:847–54.
- 1979. Forgive and Remember: Managing Medical Failure. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
- 1972. Surgical Procedures in the Elderly. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics 134:221–26. , and .
- 1989. Effective Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth. New York : Oxford Medical. , , and .
- 1997. The Ellipsis of Prognosis in Modern Medical Thought. Social Science & Medicine 44:301–15.
- 1972. Invisible Colleges: Diffusion of Knowledge in Scientific Communities. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
- 1981. Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Factors Influencing Survival after Operation Performed over a 25-Year Period. Annals of Surgery 193:699–709. , , , , , and .
- 2009. Ambulatory Surgery in the United States, 2006. National Health Statistics Reports 1–25. , , and .
- 2006. The Value of Medical Spending in the United States, 1960–2000. New England Journal of Medicine 355: 920–27. , , and .
- 2005. Evidence-Based Medicine and the Search for a Science of Clinical Care. Berkeley and New York : University of California Press / Milbank Memorial Fund.
- 2006. The Social and Cultural Shaping of Medical Evidence: Case Studies from Pharmaceutical Research and Obstetric Science. Social Science Medicine 62:2694–706. , and .
- 2008. The Subjectivity of Objectivity: The Social, Cultural, and Political Shaping of Evidence-Based Medicine. In The Brave New World of Health, ed. B. Bennett, T. Carney, and I. Karpin, 144–65. Sydney : Federation Press. , , and .
- 1986. Cardiac Assessment for Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery: A Multifactorial Clinical Risk Index. Archives of Internal Medicine 146:2131–34. , , , , and .
- 2008. Effects of Extended-Release Metoprolol Succinate in Patients Undergoing Non-Cardiac Surgery (POISE Trial): A Randomised Controlled Trial. The Lancet 371:1839–47. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .
- 1979. Prediction of Outcome of Surgery and Anesthesia in Patients over 80. JAMA 242:2301–6. , and .
- 1982. Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technical and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley : University of California Press. , and .
- 1957. Physical Status or “Risk.” In Introduction to Anesthesia: The Principles of Safe Practice, 5–6. Philadelphia : Saunders. , , and .
- 2003. The Aging Population and Its Impact on the Surgery Workforce. Annals of Surgery 238:170–77. , , , and .
- 1963a. The Basic Elements of Clinical Science. Journal of Chronic Diseases 16:1125–33.
- 1963b. Boolean Algebra and Clinical Taxonomy. I. Analytic Synthesis of the General Spectrum of a Human Disease. New England Journal of Medicine 269:929–38.
- 1964a. Scientific Methodology in Clinical Medicine. I. Introduction, Principles, and Concepts. Annals of Internal Medicine 61:564–79.
- 1964b. Scientific Methodology in Clinical Medicine. II. Classification of Human Disease by Clinical Behavior. Annals of Internal Medicine 61:757–81.
- 1964c. Scientific Methodology in Clinical Medicine. III. The Evaluation of Therapeutic Response. Annals of Internal Medicine 61:944–65.
- 1964d. Scientific Methodology in Clinical Medicine. IV. Acquisition of Clinical Data. Annals of Internal Medicine 61:1162–93.
- 1967. Clinical Judgment. Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins.
- 2003a. The Implications of Regional Variations in Medicare Spending. Part 1: The Content, Quality, and Accessibility of Care. Annals of Internal Medicine 138:273–87. , , , , , and .
- 2003b. The Implications of Regional Variations in Medicare Spending. Part 2: Health Outcomes and Satisfaction with Care. Annals of Internal Medicine 138:288–98. , , , , , and .
- 2007. ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Care for Noncardiac Surgery: Executive Summary . A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery). Circulation 116:1971–96. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .
- 1979. Clinical Research in General Medical Journals: A 30-Year Perspective. New England Journal of Medicine 301:180–83. , and .
- 1983. Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. New York : Basic Books.
- 2010. The Revised Cardiac Risk Index Delivers What It Promised. Annals of Internal Medicine 152:57–58.
- 1977. Multifactorial Index of Cardiac Risk in Noncardiac Surgical Procedures. New England Journal of Medicine 297:845–50. , , , , , , , , , , , , and .
- 1998. Patient Participation in Decision-Making. Social Science Medicine 47:329–39. , and .
- 1990. The Taming of Chance. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
- 1995. The Decline in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Mortality in New York State. The Role of Surgeon Volume. JAMA 273:209–13. , , , , and .
- 1979. Introduction to Anesthesia—The Principles of Safe Practice. Annals of Surgery 189:672.
- 1998. Probabilities and Health Risks: A Qualitative Approach. Social Science Medicine 47:1295–306. , , and .
- 1976. Predicted Survival in Peptic Ulcer Patients Based on Computer Analysis of Preoperative Variables. Annals of Surgery 183:594–98. , and .
- 1992. The Framingham Experience. In Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From Aetiology to Public Health, ed. M. Marmot and P. Elliott, 67–82. New York : Oxford University Press.
- 1994. Operative Mortality Rates for Intact and Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Michigan: An Eleven-Year Statewide Experience. Journal of Vascular Surgery 19:804–15, discussion 16–17. , , and .
- 2004. The Critical Care Crisis in the United States: A Report from the Profession. Chest 125: 514–17. , , , , , , , , and .
- 2009. Development and Validation of an Acute Kidney Injury Risk Index for Patients Undergoing General Surgery: Results from a National Data Set. Anesthesiology 110:505–15. , , , , , , and .
- 1973. Risks of Operation in Patients over 80. Geriatrics 28: 100–105. , , , and .
- 1999. Derivation and Prospective Validation of a Simple Index for Prediction of Cardiac Risk of Major Noncardiac Surgery. Circulation 100:1043–49. , , , , , , , , , , , , and .
- 2005. Perioperative Beta-Blocker Therapy and Mortality after Major Noncardiac Surgery. New England Journal of Medicine 353:349–61. , , , , , and .
- 1997. The Progress of Experiment: Science and Therapeutic Reform in the United States, 1900–1990. New York : Cambridge University Press.
- 1964. Operative Complications and Mortality in Patients over 80 Years of Age. Archives of Surgery 88:896–904. , and .
- 2004. Coronary-Artery Revascularization before Elective Major Vascular Surgery. New England Journal of Medicine 351:2795–804. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .
- 2002. The Body Multiple: Ontology in Medical Practice. Durham , NC : Duke University Press.
- 1970. The Assessment of Operative Risk. In Surgery: Principles and Practice, 4th ed., ed. J.E. Rhoads, J.G. Allen, H.N. Harkins, and C.A. Moyer, 232–43. Philadelphia : Lippincott.
- 1956. Estimation of Operative Risk in 1955. JAMA 160:853–55. , and .
- 2010. Surgeons’ Decisions and the Financial and Human Costs of Medical Care. New England Journal of Medicine 363:2382–83.
- 2008. Principles of Preoperative and Operative Surgery. In Sabiston Textbook of Surgery, 18th ed., ed. C.M. Townsend, R.D. Beauchamp, B.M. Evers, and K.L. Mattox, 251–79. Philadelphia : Saunders. , and .
- 2004. Modifying Unwarranted Variations in Health Care: Shared Decision Making Using Patient Decision Aids. Health Affairs suppl. variation:VAR-63–72. , , and .
- 2007. Toward the “Tipping Point”: Decision Aids and Informed Patient Choice. Health Affairs 26:716–25. , , , , , , , and .
- 2001. Surgical Textbooks and Journals. Archives of Surgery 136:1343–44. .
- 2006. Should Major Vascular Surgery Be Delayed Because of Preoperative Cardiac Testing in Intermediate-Risk Patients Receiving Beta-Blocker Therapy with Tight Heart Rate Control? Journal of the American College of Cardiology 48:964–69. , , , , , , , , , , , and .
- 1977. Principles of Preoperative Preparation of the Surgical Patient. In Davis-Christopher Textbook of Surgery, 10th ed., ed. D.C. Sabiston, 119–30. Philadelphia : Saunders.
- 1981. Principles of Preoperative Preparation of the Surgical Patient. In Davis-Christopher Textbook of Surgery, 11th ed., ed. D.C. Sabiston, 115–27. Philadelphia : Saunders.
- 1991. Principles of Preoperative Preparation of the Surgical Patient. In Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice, 14th ed., ed. D.C. Sabiston, 77–85. Philadelphia : Saunders.
- 2003. Surgical Textbooks: Past, Present, and Future. Annals of Surgery 238:S34–S41.
- 2000. End-of-Life Care Content in 50 Textbooks from Multiple Specialties. JAMA 283:771–78. , , , and .
- 1966. Surgery: Principles and Practice (book review). JAMA 196:364–65.
- 2003. Public Health and the Risk Factor: A History of an Uneven Medical Revolution. Rochester , NY : University of Rochester Press.
- 1969. Clinical Epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology 89:125–28.
- 1972. Computers and Mathematical Techniques in Surgery. In Davis-Christopher Textbook of Surgery, 10th ed., ed. D.C. Sabiston, 213–33. Philadelphia : Saunders.
- 1972. Principles of Preoperative Preparation of the Surgical Patient. In Davis-Christopher Textbook of Surgery, 10th ed., ed. D.C. Sabiston, 112–30. Philadelphia : Saunders.
- 1964. Surgical Risk in the Cardiac Patient. Journal of Chronic Diseases 17:57–72. , and .
- 1995. The Risk Epidemic in Medical Journals. Social Science Medicine 40:291–305.
- 1999. Trust, Emotion, Sex, Politics, and Science: Surveying the Risk-Assessment Battlefield. Risk Analysis 19:689–701.
- 1980. Facts and Fears: Understanding Percieved Risk. In Societal Risk Assessment: How Safe Is Safe Enough? ed. R.C. Schwing and W.A. Albers, 181–216. New York : Plenum Press. , , and .
- 1972. Myocardial Infarction after General Anesthesia. JAMA 220:1451–54. , , , and .
- 2003. The Gold Standard: The Challenge of Evidence-Based Medicine and Standardization in Health Care. Philadelphia : Temple University Press. , and .
- 1997. Preoperative Evaluation. In Introduction to Anesthesia, 8th ed., ed. D.E. Longenecker and F.L. Murphy, 11–19. Philadelphia : Saunders.
- 1968. Principles of Preoperative and Postoperative Care. In Christopher's Textbook of Surgery, 9th ed., ed. L. Davis, 172–209. Philadelphia : Saunders.
- 2007. The Emergence of Clinical Practice Guidelines. The Milbank Quarterly 85:691–727. , , , , , and .
- 2010. Tracking Medicine: A Researcher's Quest to Understand Health Care. New York : Oxford University Press.
- 2010. Non-invasive Cardiac Stress Testing before Elective Major Non-cardiac Surgery: Population Based Cohort Study. BMJ 340:b5526. , , , , and .
- 2007. Derivation and Validation of a Simplified Predictive Index for Renal Replacement Therapy after Cardiac Surgery. JAMA 297:1801–9. , , , , , , and .
- 1963. Surgery in the Elderly Male. JAMA 184:332–36. , and .
- 1976. Rational Diagnosis and Treatment. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific.
- 1986. Rational Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11:123–34.
- 2003. Surgeons and the Scope. Ithaca , NY : Cornell University Press.