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Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Propensity*
Article first published online: 21 DEC 2011
© Blackwell Publishing Ltd and the Department of Economics, University of Oxford 2011
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics
Volume 75, Issue 2, pages 213–234, April 2013
How to Cite
Koellinger, P., Minniti, M. and Schade, C. (2013), Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Propensity. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 75: 213–234. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0084.2011.00689.x
- Issue published online: 4 MAR 2013
- Article first published online: 21 DEC 2011
- Final Manuscript Received: July 2011
Using data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident in their entrepreneurial skills, have different social networks and exhibit higher fear of failure than men. After controlling for endogeneity, we find that these variables explain a substantial part of the gender gap in entrepreneurial activity. Although, of course, their relative importance varies significantly across countries, these factors appear to have a universal effect.