- Top of page
- Olympic-sized costs
- Sports ‘boosters’ predictions
- Methodological errors associated with ex ante studies
- Problems with analysing external visitors
- Problems with accounting for those locals who are non-attendees
- ‘Crowding out’
- Misuse of multipliers
- Supply-side leakages
- Construction: more a cost than a benefit?
- Legacy and white elephants
- Hidden costs
- Housing and urban regeneration
- Intangible factors?
The economic benefits of hosting mega-sporting events are often exaggerated. Ex-ante impact studies typically overestimate the gains and underestimate the costs involved. It is therefore difficult to explain in economic terms the intense competition among cities to hold such events.