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Taxation, warfare, and the early fourteenth century ‘crisis’ in the north: Cumberland lay subsidies, 1332–1348



Recent research into the impact of Anglo-Scottish conflict on northern England's economy has become increasingly sophisticated, using local estate accounts to enhance understanding of the role of war in the 'crisis' of the early fourteenth century. Yet taxation data also remains an important source on these issues, not least because of its wide geographical coverage. Using a rich series of lay subsidy documents for Cumberland, this article concludes that the direct impact of Scottish raids was only one of several determinants of economic fortunes. More significantly, reconstructing the process of taxation shows that non-violent resistance to state levies was as responsible as war damage for a decline in revenue from the county.

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