An important concern for the European Central Bank (ECB), and all central banks alike, is the necessity of making decisions in real-time under conditions of great uncertainty about the underlying state of the economy. We address this concern by estimating on real-time data a New Keynesian model for the euro area under the assumption of imperfect information. In comparison to models that maintain the assumption of perfect information and are estimated on ex-post revised, we find that: (i) the estimated policy rule becomes more inertial and less aggressive towards inflation; (ii) the ECB faces a more severe trade-off in the stabilisation of inflation and the output gap.