• breakout flood;
  • hazard potential;
  • landslide-dammed lake;
  • rock avalanche;
  • spring seepage;
  • sturzstrom


Lake Shewa in northeastern Badakhshan, Afghanistan, was dammed sometime in antiquity when a large rock avalanche (sturzstrom) from the fault-shattered and strongly weathered Archean gneisses of the Zirnokh peaks to the north moved into the Arakht River valley. This rock avalanche dammed up the river and its tributaries to a dam thickness of c. 400 m, producing a 12-km-long lake that is as much as 270 m deep, leaving c. 80 m of freeboard to the top of the dam. At least four separate instances of slope failure have been mapped at the site of the landslide dam, as well as a rock glacier, using remotely sensed data, historical maps, and Google Earth™. Spring seepage through the dam face has caused several recent subsidiary debris slides, which if continued at a large enough scale for long enough, or with additional seismicity from the active strike-slip faults that cross beneath the landslide dam, could threaten its integrity. Otherwise the clean water that emerges from the dam face could be the source of an unvarying mini-hydroelectric power source, in addition to the agricultural irrigation that it provides at the present time.