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This article is an analysis and description of public sector management changes in developed economies over the past 10 years as seen from the perspective of two practitioners who regard themselves as general supporters of the new “managerialism” and are strong believers in the need for, and possibility of, well-performing public institutions and organizations. We aim to describe what we think the changes are, or should have been about, and to suggest where the successes and failures have occurred. In doing so, we draw on the analysis and description of these changes by a number of prominent academics. Not surprisingly, we differ from them in a number of respects. In some of the detail, we have more to say about Australia than other countries. This reflects our involvement in the reform program of that county as well as our view that Australian reform efforts, despite their flaws, are of particular interest because of the attention they paid to the linkages between policymaking at the center, the systems, processes and structures that support strategic policymaking and the translation of strategic policy into efficient and effective implementation, including effective provision of goods and services to the community.