Antiretroviral drug resistance among antiretroviral-naïve persons with recent HIV infection in Thailand


Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Thammasat University Hospital, Pratumthani, Thailand 12120. Tel: + 66 81 987 2030; fax: + 66 2 332 8522; e-mail:



To evaluate the prevalence and patterns of antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance (ARV-DR) among ARV drug-naïve, recently infected persons with HIV in the 4-year interval (2003–2006) after the inception of the National Access to ARV Programme for People who have AIDS in Thailand.


Cross-sectional study of patients with recent HIV infection for HIV risks, ARV-DR risks and baseline ARV-DR.


Seven of the 305 patients (2%) had baseline ARV-DR. Via contract tracing, all seven patients with transmitted ARV-DR identified sexual partners with prior ARV treatment failure and had documented low (<75%) ARV adherence. Annual ARV-DR increased from 0 to 5.2% (P=0.06) between 2003 and 2006.


Report of sexual partners with potential HIV and ARV drug exposures can prompt baseline ARV-DR testing of at-risk individuals, while behavioural interventions for adherence and safer sex are refined to minimize the emergence of resistance to generic, fixed-dose combination stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (GPO-VIR) therapy.