• efavirenz;
  • HIV;
  • nevirapine;
  • standard dose;
  • tuberculosis


There is limited comparative data between efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg/day and nevirapine (NVP) 400 mg/day-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-1 patients with tuberculosis (TB) and receiving rifampicin.


A retrospective cohort study was conducted in all ART-naïve patients who were receiving rifampicin between January 2002 and December 2005.


Of 188 patients, 77 and 111 patients were initiated on EFV-based ART (EFV group) and NVP-based ART (NVP group), respectively. Overall, median [interquartile range (IQR)] CD4 count was 36 (15–77) cells/μL and median (IQR) viral load was 5.6 (5.2–5.9) HIV-1 RNA log copies/mL. At 48 weeks, 77.9% (60/77) in the EFV group and 67.6% (75/111) in the NVP group achieved HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (P=0.140, odds ratio =0.590, 95% confidence interval=0.302–1.153). At 24 and 48 weeks, respective median CD4 counts were 174 and 254 cells/μL in the EFV group and 156 and 218 cells/μL in the NVP group (P>0.05). By binary logistic regression, treatment group was not associated with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (P>0.05). No patient in the EFV group and eight (7.2%) patients in the NVP group discontinued ART because of adverse reactions (P=0.084).


For HIV–TB co-infected patients who receive rifampicin, efficacy of 600 mg EFV-based and 400 mg NVP-based ART may be similar, although adverse events tend to be higher in NVP-based ART.