Impact of hepatitis B virus co-infection on response to highly active antiretroviral treatment and outcome in HIV-infected individuals: a nationwide cohort study


Lars H Omland, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. Tel: 45 3545 5121; fax: 45 3545 6648; e-mail:



The impact of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on viral suppression, immune recovery and mortality in HIV-1 infected patients on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a matter of debate. The impact of HBeAg status is unknown.


This prospective cohort study included all adult Danish HIV-1 infected patients who started HAART between 1 January 1995 and 1 December 2006 (3180 patients). Patients were classified as chronic HBV-infected (6%), HBV-negative (87%) or HBV-unknown (7%). HBV-positive patients were divided into HBeAg-positive or -negative (3.0 vs. 2.6%). Study endpoints were viral load, CD4 cell count and mortality.


HBV co-infection had no impact on response to HAART regarding viral suppression or immune recovery. HBV co-infection was associated with several outcomes: overall mortality [mortality rate ratio (MRR) 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.1], liver-related mortality (MRR 4.0; 95% CI 1.6–9.9) and AIDS-related deaths (MRR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0–3.0). The presence of HBeAg did not influence patients' response to HAART.


In HIV patients, chronic HBV infection has no impact on response to HAART concerning viral load and increase in CD4 cell count. However, co-infected patients have an increased mortality compared to HIV-monoinfected patients.