• 1
    Wensing AM, Boucher CA. Worldwide transmission of drug-resistant HIV. AIDS Rev 2003; 5: 140155.
  • 2
    Yerly S, Von Wyl V, Ledergerber B et al. Transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance in Switzerland: a 10-year molecular epidemiology survey. AIDS 2007; 21: 22232229.
  • 3
    Paraskevis D, Magiorkinis E, Katsoulidou A et al. Prevalence of resistance-associated mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Greece. Virus Res 2005; 112: 115122.
  • 4
    Palma AC, Araújo F, Duque V et al. Molecular epidemiology and prevalence of drug resistance-associated mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Portugal. Infect Genet Evol 2007; 7: 391398.
  • 5
    Poggensee G, Kücherer C, Werning J et al. Impact of transmission of drug-resistant HIV on the course of infection and the treatment success. Data from the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Study. HIV Med 2007; 8: 511519.
  • 6
    Ross L, Lim ML, Liao Q et al. Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance and resistance-associated mutations in antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected individuals from 40 United States cities. HIV Clin Trials 2007; 8: 18.
  • 7
    Sukasem C, Churdboonchart V, Sirisidthi K et al. Genotypic resistance mutations in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients under widespread use of antiretroviral drugs in Thailand: implications for further epidemiologic surveillance. Jpn J Infect Dis 2007; 60: 284289.
  • 8
    Bellamy R, Sangeetha S, Paton NI. AIDS-defining illnesses among patients with HIV in Singapore, 1985 to 2001: results from the Singapore HIV Observational Cohort Study (SHOCS). BMC Infect Dis 2004; 4: 47.
  • 9
    Hsu LY, Subramaniam R, Bacheler L, Paton NI. Characterization of mutations in CRF01_AE virus isolates from antiretroviral treatment-naïve and -experienced patients in Singapore. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 38: 513.
  • 10
    Pao D, Andrady U, Clarke J et al. Long-term persistence of primary genotypic resistance after HIV-1 seroconversion. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 37: 15701573.
  • 11
    Cane PA. Stability of transmitted drug-resistant HIV-1 species. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2005; 18: 537542.
  • 12
    United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organization (WHO). AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2007. Geneva, Switzerland: UNAIDS, 2007.
  • 13
    Hué S, Clewley JP, Cane PA, Pillay D. HIV-1 pol gene variation is sufficient for reconstruction of transmissions in the era of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2004; 18: 719728.
  • 14
    Hué S, Pillay D, Clewley JP, Pybus OG. Genetic analysis reveals the complex structure of HIV-1 transmission within defined risk groups. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 44254429.
  • 15
    Johnson VA, Brun-Vézinet F, Clotet B et al. Update of the drug resistance mutations in HIV-1: 2007. Top HIV Med 2007; 15: 119125.
  • 16
    Posada D, Crandall KA. MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 1998; 14: 817818.
  • 17
    Jobb G, Von Haeseler A, Strimmer K. TREEFINDER: a powerful graphical analysis environment for molecular phylogenetics. BMC Evol Biol 2004; 4: 18.
  • 18
    Tee KK, Li XJ, Nohtomi K, Ng KP, Kamarulzaman A, Takebe Y. Identification of a novel circulating recombinant form (CRF33_01B) disseminating widely among various risk populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 43: 523529.
  • 19
    Tovanabutra S, Kijak GH, Beyrer C et al. Identification of CRF34_01B, a second circulating recombinant form unrelated to and more complex than CRF15_01B, among injecting drug users in northern Thailand. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2007; 23: 829833.
  • 20
    Brenner BG, Roger M, Routy JP et al. High rates of forward transmission events after acute/early HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis 2007; 195: 951959.
  • 21
    Vella S, Palmisano L. The global status of resistance to antiretroviral drugs. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41 (Suppl 4): S239S246.
  • 22
    Jacquez JA, Koopman JS, Simon CP, Longini IM Jr. Role of the primary infection in epidemics of HIV infection in gay cohorts. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994; 7: 11691184.
  • 23
    Koopman JS, Jacquez JA, Welch GW et al. The role of early HIV infection in the spread of HIV through populations. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997; 14: 249258.
  • 24
    Yerly S, Vora S, Rizzardi P et al. Acute HIV infection: impact on the spread of HIV and transmission of drug resistance. AIDS 2001; 15: 22872292.
  • 25
    Yerly S, Jost S, Telenti A et al. Infrequent transmission of HIV-1 drug-resistant variants. Antivir Ther 2004; 9: 375384.
  • 26
    Wawer MJ, Gray RH, Sewankambo NK et al. Rates of HIV-1 transmission per coital act, by stage of HIV-1 infection, in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis 2005; 191: 14031409.
  • 27
    Pao D, Fisher M, Hué S et al. Transmission of HIV-1 during primary infection: relationship to sexual risk and sexually transmitted infections. AIDS 2005; 19: 8590.
  • 28
    Pilcher CD, Tien HC, Eron JJ Jr et al. Brief but efficient: acute HIV infection and the sexual transmission of HIV. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 17851792.
  • 29
    Pilcher CD, Joaki G, Hoffman IF et al. Amplified transmission of HIV-1: comparison of HIV-1 concentrations in semen and blood during acute and chronic infection. AIDS 2007; 21: 17231730.
  • 30
    Operskalski EA, Stram DO, Busch MP et al. Role of viral load in heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by blood transfusion recipients. Transfusion Safety Study Group. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 146: 655661.
  • 31
    Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 921929.
  • 32
    Garcia PM, Kalish LA, Pitt J et al. Maternal levels of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and the risk of perinatal transmission. Women and Infants Transmission Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 394402.