• 1
    Palella FJ Jr., Delaney KM, Moorman AC et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 853860.
  • 2
    Maggiolo F, Ripamonti D, Suter F. Switch strategies in patients on effective HAART. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005; 55: 821823.
  • 3
    Von Hentig N. Atazanavir/Ritonavir: a review of its use in HIV therapy. Drugs Today (Barc) 2008; 44: 103132.
  • 4
    Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. January 29, 2008; 1–128. Available at (accessed 2 December 2008).
  • 5
    Hammer SM, Eron JJ, Reiss P et al. Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2008 recommendations of the International AIDS Society USA panel. JAMA 2008; 300: 555570.
  • 6
    Panel de Expertos de GESIDA y Plan Nacional sobre el SIDA. Recommendations from the GESIDA/Spanish AIDS Plan regarding antiretroviral treatment in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection (update January 2008). Available at (accessed 2 December 2008).
  • 7
    Moyle G, Gatell J, Perno C-F et al. Potential for new antiretrovirals to address unmet needs in the management of HIV-1 infection. AIDS Patient Care STDs 2008; 22: 113.
  • 8
    Colafigli M, Di Giambenedetto S, Bracciale L et al. Cardiovascular risk score change in HIV-1-infected patients switched to an atazanavir-based combination antiretroviral regimen. HIV Med 2008; 9: 172179.
  • 9
    Negredo E, Bonjoch A, Clotet B. Benefits and concerns of simplification strategies in HIV-infected patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 58: 235242.
  • 10
    Martinez E, Arnaiz JA, Podzamczer D et al. Substitution of nevirapine, efavirenz, or abacavir for protease inhibitors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 10361045.
  • 11
    Becker S, Rachlis A, Gill J et al. Successful substitution of protease inhibitors with efavirenz (EFV) in patients with undetectable viral loads – a prospective, randomized, multicenter, open-label study (DMP 049). Programme and Abstracts of the Eighth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Chicago, IL, 2001 [Abstract 20].
  • 12
    Raffi F, Bonnet B, Ferre V et al. Substitution of a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for a protease inhibitor in the treatment of patients with undetectable plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31: 12741278.
  • 13
    Negredo E, Cruz L, Paredes R et al. Virological, immunological, and clinical impact of switching from protease inhibitors to nevirapine or to efavirenz in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and long-lasting viral suppression. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 504510.
  • 14
    Molina JM, Journot V, Morand-Jouber et al. Simplification therapy with once-daily emtricitabine, didanosine, and efavirenz in HIV-1 infected adults with viral suppression receiving a protease inhibitor-based regimen: a randomized study. J Infect Dis 2005; 191: 830839.
  • 15
    Summary of Product Characteristics. Reyataz. Available at (accessed 2 December 2008).
  • 16
    Johnson M, Grinsztejn, Rodríguez C et al. 96-week comparison of once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir and twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir in patients with multiple virologic failures. AIDS 2006; 20: 711718.
  • 17
    Molina JM, Andrade-Villanueva J, Echevarria J et al. CASTLE Study Team. Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir versus twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir, each in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine, for management of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: 48 week efficacy and safety results of the CASTLE study. Lancet 2008; 23: 646655.
  • 18
    Mallolas J, Podzamczer D, Domingo P et al. Efficacy and safety of switching from boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) to boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) in patients with virologic suppression receiving a LPV/r-containing HAART: The ATAZIP study. Abstracts of the 4th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Sydney, Australia, July 2007 [Abstract WEPEB117LB].
  • 19
    Molina JM, Andrade-Villanueva J, Echevarría J et al. Efficacy and safety of boosted once-daily atazanavir and twice-daily lopinavir regimens in treatment-naive HIV-1 infected subjects. CASTLE: 48 weeks results. Abstracts of the 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Boston, MA, February 2008 [Abstract 37].
  • 20
    Moyle G, Andrade J, Girard PM et al. Continuation of BID boosted PI vs switch to once-daily ATV/RTV for the management of lipodystrophy: 48 weeks primary analysis of the 96 weeks multicenter, open-label, randomized, prospective ReAL Study. Abstracts of the XVII International AIDS Conference. Mexico City, August 2008 [Abstract MOPDB103].
  • 21
    Pineda JA, Santos J, Rivero A et al. Liver toxicity of antiretroviral combinations including atazanavir/ritonavir in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis viruses: impact of pre-existing liver fibrosis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008; 61: 925932.