• 1
    Månsson F, Biague A, Da Silva ZJ et al. Prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 before, during and after a civil war in an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. AIDS 2009; 23: 15751582.
  • 2
    Pfutzner A, Dietrich U, Von Eichel U et al. HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in a high-risk population in Bombay, India: evidence for the spread of HIV-2 and presence of a divergent HIV–1 subtype. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1992; 5: 972977.
  • 3
    Cazein F, Hamers F, Alix J, Brunet JB. Prevalence of HIV-2 in Europe. Euro Surveill 1996; 1: 2123.
  • 4
    CDC. Update: HIV-2 infection among blood and plasma donors–United States, June 1992–June 1995. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1995; 44: 603606.
  • 5
    Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, Health Protection Scotland and UCL Institute of Child Health. Unpublished HIV Diagnoses Surveillance Tables 01:2010. Available at (accessed 27 April 2010).
  • 6
    Horsburgh CR Jr, Holmberg SD. The global distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection. Transfusion 1988; 28: 192195.
  • 7
    Kanki PJ, Travers KU, Mboup S et al. Slower heterosexual spread of HIV-2 than HIV-1. Lancet 1994; 343: 943946.
  • 8
    Adjorlolo-Johnson G, De Cock KM, Ekpini E et al. Prospective comparison of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. JAMA 1994; 272: 462466.
  • 9
    Morgan G, Wilkins HA, Pepin J et al. AIDS following mother-to-child transmission of HIV-2. AIDS 1990; 4: 879882.
  • 10
    Matheron S, Courpotin C, Simon F et al. Vertical transmission of HIV-2. Lancet 1990; 335: 11031104.
  • 11
    Gueudin M, Damond F, Braun J et al. Differences in proviral DNA load between HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected patients. AIDS 2008; 22: 211215.
  • 12
    Pepin J, Dunn D, Gaye I et al. HIV-2 infection among prostitutes working in The Gambia: association with serological evidence of genital ulcer diseases and with generalized lymphadenopathy. AIDS 1991; 5: 6975.
  • 13
    Pepin J, Quigley M, Todd J et al. Association between HIV-2 infection and genital ulcer diseases among male sexually transmitted disease patients in The Gambia. AIDS 1992; 6: 489493.
  • 14
    Miyazaki M. Epidemiological characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 infection in Africa. Int J STD AIDS 1995; 6: 7580.
  • 15
    Harrison LH, Da Silva AP, Gayle HD et al. Risk factors for HIV-2 infection in Guinea-Bissau. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1991; 4: 11551160.
  • 16
    Marlink R, Kanki P, Thior I et al. Reduced rate of disease development after HIV-2 infection as compared to HIV-1. Science 1994; 265: 15871590.
  • 17
    Jaffar S, Wilkins A, Ngom PT et al. Rate of decline of percentage CD4+ cells is faster in HIV-1 than in HIV-2 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997; 16: 327332.
  • 18
    Whittle H, Morris J, Todd J et al. HIV-2 infected patients survive longer than HIV-1 infected patients. AIDS 1994; 8: 16171620.
  • 19
    Schim van der Loeff M, Jaffar S, Aveika A et al. Mortality of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected patients in a clinic-based cohort in the Gambia. AIDS 2002; 16: 17751783.
  • 20
    Berry N, Jaffar S, Schim van der Loeff M et al. Low level viraemia and high CD4 % predict normal survival in a cohort of HIV type-2-infected villagers. AIDS Res and Human Retr 2002; 18: 11671173.
  • 21
    Matheron S, Mendoza-Sassi G, Simon F et al. HIV-1 and HIV-2 AIDS in African patients living in Paris. AIDS 1997; 11: 934936.
  • 22
    MacNeil A, Sarr AD, Sankale JL, Meloni ST, Mboup S, Kanki P. Direct evidence of lower viral replication rates in vivo in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection than in HIV-1 infection. J Virol 2007; 81: 53255330.
  • 23
    Gilbert PB, McKeague IW, Eisen G et al. Comparison of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infectivity from a prospective cohort study in Senegal. Stat Med 2003; 22: 573593.
  • 24
    Otten RA, Adams DR, Kim CN et al. Chronic HIV-2 infection protects against total CD4+ cell depletion and rapid disease progression induced by SHIV89.6p challenge. AIDS 2004; 18: 11271135.
  • 25
    Holmgren B, Da Silva Z, Larsen O et al. Dual infections with HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1 are more common in older women than in men in Guinea-Bissau. AIDS 2003; 17: 241253.
  • 26
    Koblavi-Deme S, Kestens L, Hanson D et al. Differences in HIV-2 plasma viral load and immune activation in HIV-1 and HIV-2 dually infected persons and those infected with HIV-2 only in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. AIDS 2004; 18: 413419.
  • 27
    Peeters M, Gershy-Damet GM, Fransen K et al. Virological and polymerase chain reaction studies of HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infection in Cote d'Ivoire. Lancet 1992; 340: 339340.
  • 28
    Damond F, Loussert-Ajaka I, Apetrei C et al. Highly sensitive method for amplification of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 DNA. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 809811.
  • 29
    Damond F, Benard A, Ruelle J et al. Quality control assessment of human virus type 2 immunodeficiency (HIV-2) viral load quantification assays: results from an international collaboration on HIV-2 infection in 2006. J Clin Microbiol 2008; 46: 20882091.
  • 30
    Andersson S, Norrgren H, Da Silva Z et al. Plasma viral load in HIV-1 and HIV-2 singly and dually infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: significantly lower plasma virus set point in HIV-2 infection than in HIV-1 infection. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 32863293.
  • 31
    Matheron S, Pueyo S, Damond F et al. for the French HIV-2 Cohort Study Group. Factors associated with clinical progression in HIV-2-infected patients: the French ANRS cohort. AIDS 2003; 17: 25932601.
  • 32
    Ariyoshi K, Jaffar S, Alabi AS et al. Plasma RNA viral load predicts the rate of CD4 T cell decline and death in HIV-2 infected patients in West Africa. AIDS 2000; 14: 339344.
  • 33
    Smith NA, Shaw T, Berry N et al. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 infected patients. J Infect 2001; 42: 126133.
  • 34
    Drylewicz J, Matheron S, Lazaro E et al. Comparison of viro-immunological marker changes between HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected patients in France. AIDS 2008; 22: 457468.
  • 35
    Adjé-Touré CA, Cheingsong R, Garcia-Lerma JG et al. Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-2 infected patients: changes in plasma viral load, CD4+ cell counts, and drug resistance profiles of patients treated in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. AIDS 2003; 17 (Suppl. 3): S49S54.
  • 36
    Van der Ende ME, Prins JM, Brinkman K et al. Clinical, immunological and virological response to different antiretroviral regimens in a cohort of HIV-2 infected patients. AIDS 2003; 17 (Suppl. 3): S55S61.
  • 37
    Matheron S, Damond F, Benard A, Taieb A, Campa P. CD4 recovery in treated HIV-2 infected adults is lower than expected: results from the France ANRS CO5 HIV-2 cohort. AIDS 2006; 20: 459462.
  • 38
    Damond F, Collin G, Descamps D et al. Improved sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B plasma viral load assay. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 42344236.
  • 39
    Ren J, Bird LE, Chamberlain PP, Stewart-Jones GB, Stewart DI, Stammers DK. Structure of HIV-2 reverse transcriptase at 2.35 – A resolution and the mechanism of resistance to non-nucleoside inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 1441014415.
  • 40
    Parkin NT, Schapiro JM. Antiretroviral drug resistance in non-subtype B HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV. Antivir Ther 2004; 9: 312.
  • 41
    Smith RA, Anderson DJ, Pyrak CL, Kiviat NB, Gottlieb GS, Preston BD. Low genetic barrier to nucleoside analogue resistance in HIV-2. Antivir Ther 2007; 12: S137.
  • 42
    Rodes B, Holguin A, Soriano V et al. Emergence of drug resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-infected subjects undergoing antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 13701374.
  • 43
    Van der Ende ME, Schutten M, Ly TD et al. HIV-2 infection in 12 European residents: virus characteristics and disease progression. AIDS 1996; 10: 16491655.
  • 44
    Van der Ende ME, Guillon C, Boers PH et al. Antiviral resistance of biologic HIV-2 clones obtained from individuals on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000; 25: 1118.
  • 45
    Tantillo C, Ding A, Jacobo-Molina A et al. Location of anti-AIDS drug binding site and resistance mutations in the three dimensional structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. J Mol Biol 1994; 243: 369387.
  • 46
    Descamps D, Damond F, Matheron S et al. High frequency of selection of K65R and Q151M mutations in HIV-2 infected patients receiving nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors containing regimen. J Med Virol 2004; 74: 197201.
  • 47
    Rodes B, Toro C, Jimenez V et al. Viral response to antiretroviral therapy in a patient coinfected with HIV type 1 and type 2. CID 2005; 41: e19e21.
  • 48
    Damond F, Matheron S, Peytavin G et al. Selection of K65R mutation in HIV-2 infected patients receiving tenofovir-containing regimen. Antivir Ther 2004; 9: 635636.
  • 49
    Van Vaerenbergh K, Van Laetham K, Albert J et al. Prevalence and characteristics of multinucleoside-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among European patients receiving combinations of nucleoside analogues. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000; 44: 21092017.
  • 50
    Ntemgwa ML, Toni T, Brenner BG et al. Nucleoside and nucleotide analogs select in culture for different patterns of drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53: 708715.
  • 51
    Schmit JC, Van Laetham K, Ruiz L et al. Multiple dideoxynucleoside analogue-resistant (MddNR) HIV-1 strains isolated from patients from different European countries. AIDS 1998; 12: 20072015.
  • 52
    Rodriguez-Rosado R, Briones C, Soriano V. Introduction of drug resistance testing in clinical practice. AIDS 1999; 13: 10071014.
  • 53
    Ntemgwa M, Brenner BG, Oliveira M, Moisi D, Wainberg MA. Natural polymorphisms in the HIV-2 protease can accelerate time to development of resistance to Protease Inhibitors (PIs). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 51: 604610.
  • 54
    Cavaco-Silva J, Miranda AC, Cabanas J et al. for the Portuguese HIV-2 Study Group. Amino acid substitutions selected by therapy in HIV-2 protease and reverse transcriptase. 16th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Montreal, Canada, February 2009 [Abstract 633].
  • 55
    Desbois D, Roquebert B, Peytavin G et al. for the French ANRS HIV-2 Cohort (ANRS CO 05 VIH-2). In vitro phenotypic susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 clinical isolates to protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52: 15451548.
  • 56
    Brower ET, Bacha UM, Kawasaki Y, Freire E. Inhibition of HIV-2 protease by HIV-1 protease inhibitors in clinical use. Chem Biol Drug Des 2008; 71: 298305.
  • 57
    Witvrouw M, Pannecouque C, Switzer WM, Folks TM, De Clercq E, Heneine W. Susceptibility of HIV-2, SIV and SHIV to various anti-HIV-1 compounds: implications for treatment and postexposure prophylaxis. Antivir Ther 2004; 9: 5765.
  • 58
    Rodes B, Sheldon J, Toro C, Jimenez V, Alvarez MA, Soriano V. Susceptibility to protease inhibitors in HIV-2 primary isolates from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 57: 709713.
  • 59
    Maguire M, Shortino D, Klein A et al. Emergence of resistance to protease inhibitor amprenavir in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected patients: selection of four alternative viral protease genotypes and influence of viral susceptibility to coadministered reverse transcriptase nucleoside inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46: 731738.
  • 60
    Jallow S, Kaye S, Alabi A et al. Virological and immunological response to Combivir and emergence of drug resistance mutations in a cohort of HIV-2 patients in The Gambia. AIDS 2006; 20: 14551458.
  • 61
    Mullins C, Eisen G, Popper S et al. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and viral response in HIV type 2 infection. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 17711779.
  • 62
    Bénard A, Damond F, Campa P et al. for the ANRS CO5 HIV-2 Cohort Study Group. Good response to lopinavir/ritonavir-containing antiretroviral regimens in antiretroviral-naive HIV-2-infected patients. AIDS 2009; 23: 11711173.
  • 63
    Rodes B, Toro C, Sheldon J et al. High rate of proV47A selection in HIV-2 patients failing lopinavir-based HAART. AIDS 2006; 20: 127129.
  • 64
    Brandin E, Lindborg L, Gyllensten K et al. Pol gene sequence variation in Swedish HIV-2 patients failing antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2003; 19: 543550.
  • 65
    Parkin N, Chappey C, Petropoulos C. Improving lopinavir genotype algorithm through phenotype correlations; novel mutation patterns and amprenavir cross-resistance. AIDS 2003; 17: 955961.
  • 66
    Masse S, Lu X, Dekhtyar T et al. In vitro selection and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 with decreased susceptibility to lopinavir. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 51: 30753080.
  • 67
    Koh Y, Nakata H, Maeda K et al. Novel bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane-containing nonpeptidic protease inhibitor (PI) UIC-94017 (TMC114) with potent activity against multi-PI-resistant human immunodeficiency virus in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003; 47: 31233129.
  • 68
    Whitcomb J, Huang W, Fransen S et al. Analysis of baseline enfuvirtide (T-20) susceptibility and co-receptor tropism in two phase III study populations. 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Boston, MA, February 2003 [Abstract 557].
  • 69
    Roquebert B, Damond F, Collin G et al. for the French ANRS HIV-2 Cohort (ANRS CO 05 VIH-2). HIV-2 integrase gene polymorphism and phenotypic susceptibility of HIV-2 clinical isolates to the integrase inhibitors raltegravir and elvitegravir in vitro. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008; 62: 914920.
  • 70
    Damond F, Lariven S, Roquebert B et al. Virological and immunological response to HAART regimen containing integrase inhibitors in HIV-2-infected patients. AIDS 2008; 22: 665666.
  • 71
    Willey S, Peters PJ, Sullivan WM, Dorr P, Perros M, Clapham PR. Inhibition of CCR5-mediated infection by diverse R5 and R5X4 HIV and SIV isolates using novel small molecule inhibitors of CCR5: effects of viral diversity, target cell and receptor density. Antivir Res 2005; 68: 96108.
  • 72
    Owen SM, Ellenberger D, Rayfield M et al. Genetically divergent strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 use multiple coreceptors for viral entry. J Virol 1998; 72: 54255432.
  • 73
    Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents. Recommendations for a public health approach. Available at (accessed 4 February 2010).
  • 74
    Jallow S, Alabi A, Sargee-Njie R et al. Virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and in patients dually infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in the Gambia and emergence of drug-resistant variants. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 22002208.
  • 75
    Landman R, Damond F, Gerbe J, Brun-Vezinet F, Yeni P, Matheron S. Immunovirological and therapeutic follow-up of HIV-1/HIV-2-dually seropositive patients. AIDS 2009; 23: 426428.
  • 76
    Gilks CF, Crowley S, Ekpini R et al. The WHO public-health approach to antiretroviral treatment against HIV in resource-limited settings. Lancet 2006; 368: 505510.
  • 77
    Benard A, Taieb A, Van Sighem A et al. for the ACHIEV2E study group. Immuno-virological response to triple NRTI and boosted PI in treatment-naïve HIV-2-infected patients. European AIDS Clinical Society Conference. Cologne, November 2009 [Abstract PS10/5].
  • 78
    Schutten M, Van Der Ende M, Osterhaus A et al. Antiretroviral therapy in patients with dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. NEJM 2000; 23: 17581760.
  • 79
    De Ruiter A, Mercey D, Anderson J et al. British HIV Association and Children's HIV Association guidelines for the management of HIV infection in pregnant women 2008. HIV Medicine 2008; 9: 452502.