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Keywords:

  • atazanavir;
  • HIV;
  • pregnancy;
  • prevention of mother-to-child transmission;
  • protease inhibitor

Objective

There are limited antiretroviral options for use in the treatment of HIV infection during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, efficacy and appropriate dosing regimen for ritonavir (RTV)-boosted atazanavir in HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

Methods

In this nonrandomized, open-label study, HIV-infected pregnant women were dosed with either 300/100 mg (n=20) or 400/100 mg (n=21) atazanavir/RTV once-daily (qd) in combination with zidovudine (300 mg) and lamivudine (150 mg) twice daily in the third trimester. Pharmacokinetic parameters [maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax), trough observed plasma concentration 24 hour post dose (Cmin) and area under concentration-time curve in one dosing interval (AUCτ)] were determined and compared with historical values (300/100 mg atazanavir/RTV) for HIV-infected nonpregnant adults (n=23).

Results

At or before delivery, all mothers achieved HIV RNA <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL and all infants were HIV DNA negative at 6 months of age. The third trimester AUCτ for atazanavir/RTV 300/100 mg was 21% lower than historical data, but the Cmin values were comparable. The Cmin value for atazanavir/RTV 400/100 mg was 39% higher than the Cmin for atazanavir/RTV 300/100 mg in historical controls, but the AUCτ values were comparable. Twice as many patients in the 400/100 mg group (62%) had an increase in total bilirubin (>2.5 times the upper limit of normal) as in the 300/100 mg group (30%). Atazanavir (ATV) was well tolerated with no unanticipated adverse events.

Conclusions

In this study, use of atazanavir/RTV 300/100 mg qd produced Cmin comparable to historical data in nonpregnant HIV-infected adults. When used in combination with zidovudine/lamivudine, it suppressed HIV RNA in all mothers and prevented mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection. During pregnancy, the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy demonstrated that a dose adjustment is not required for ATV.