9.4 References

  • 1
    Arnow PM, Flaherty JP. Fever of unknown origin. Lancet 1997; 350: 575580.
  • 2
    Durack DT, Street AC. Fever of unknown origin–reexamined and redefined. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis 1991; 11: 3551.
  • 3
    Hot A, Schmulewitz L, Viard JP, Lortholary O. Fever of unknown origin in HIV/AIDS patients. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2007; 21: 10131032.
  • 4
    Miller RF, Hingorami AD, Foley NM. Pyrexia of undetermined origin in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS. Int J STD AIDS 1996 7: 170175.
  • 5
    Barbado FJ, Gómez-Cerezo J, Peña JM et al. Fever of unknown origin: a comparative study. J Med 2001; 32: 152162.
  • 6
    Armstrong WS, Katz JT, Kazanjian PH. Human immunodeficiency virus associated fever of unknown origin: A study of 70 patients in the United States and review. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 28: 341345.
  • 7
    Kitkungvan D, Apisarnthanarak A, Plengpart P, Mundy LM. Fever of unknown origin in patients with HIV infection in Thailand: an observational study and review of the literature. Int J STD AIDS 2008; 19: 232235.
  • 8
    Lozano F, Torre-Cisneros J, Bascunana A et al. Prospective evaluation of fever of unknown origin in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1996; 15: 705711.
  • 9
    Lambertucci JR, Rayes AA, Nunes F, Landazuri-Palacios JE, Nobre V. Fever of undetermined origin in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Brazil: report on 55 cases. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo 1999; 41: 2732.
  • 10
    Antinori S, Magni C, Nebuloni M et al. Histoplasmosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected people in Europe: report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 2006; 85: 2236.
  • 11
    Supparatpinyo K, Khamwan C, Baosoung V, Nelson KE, Sirisanthana T. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in southeast Asia. Lancet 1994; 344: 110113.
  • 12
    Knockaert DC, Vanneste LJ, Bobbaers HJ. Fever of unknown origin in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993; 41: 11871192.
  • 13
    Wilkin A, Feinberg J. Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia: A clinical review. Am Fam Physician 1999; 60: 16991708, 1713–1714 review.
  • 14
    Chuck SL, Sande MA. Infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 794799.
  • 15
    Grover D, Newsholme W, Brink N, Manji H, Miller RF. Herpes simplex virus infection of the central nervous system in human immunodeficiency virus-type 1-infected patients. Int J STD AIDS 2004; 15: 597600.
  • 16
    Koehler JE, Sanchez MA, Garrido CS et al. Molecular epidemiology of bartonella infections in patients with bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 18761883.
  • 17
    Mohle-Boetani JC, Koehler JE, Berger TG, LeBoit PE, Kemper CA, Reingold AL, Plikaytis BD, Wenger JD, Tappero JW. Bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: clinical characteristics in a case-control study. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 22: 794800.
  • 18
    Koehler JE, Tappero JW. Bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: 612624.
  • 19
    Baker J, Ruiz-Rodriguez R, Whitfeld M, Heon V, Berger TG. Bacillary angiomatosis: a treatable cause of acute psychiatric symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Clin Psychiatry 1995; 56: 161166.
  • 20
    Koehler JE, Sanchez MA, Tye S et al. Prevalence of Bartonella infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with fever. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37: 559566.
  • 21
    Akpek G, Lee SM, Gagnon DR, Cooley TP, Wright D. Bone marrow aspiration, biopsy, and culture in the evaluation of HIV-infected patients for invasive mycobacteria and histoplasma infections. Am J Hematol 2001; 67: 100106.
  • 22
    Engels E, Marks PW, Kazanjian P. Usefulness of bone marrow examination in the evaluation of unexplained fevers in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 21: 427428.
  • 23
    Llewelyn MJ, Noursedeghi M, Dogan A, Edwards SG, Miller RF. Diagnostic utility of bone marrow sampling in HIV-infected patients since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J STD AIDS 2005; 16: 686690.
  • 24
    Ker CC, Hung CC, Huang SY et al. Comparison of bone marrow studies with blood culture for etiological diagnosis of disseminated mycobacterial and fungal infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2002; 35: 8993.
  • 25
    Reid AJ, Miller RF, Kojcan GI. Diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in HIV-infected patients with lymphadenopathy. Cytopathology 1998; 9: 230239.
  • 26
    Saikia UN, Dey P, Jindal B, Saikia B. Fine needle aspiration cytology in lymphadenopathy of HIV-positive cases. Acta Cytol 2001; 45: 589592.
  • 27
    Ellison E, Lapuerta P, Martin SE. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) in HIV+patients: results from a series of 655 aspirates. Cytopathology 1998; 9: 222229.
  • 28
    Wilson D, Nachega JB, Chaisson RE, Maartens G. Diagnostic yield of peripheral lymph node needle-core biopsies in HIV-infected adults with suspected smear-negative tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2005; 9: 220222.
  • 29
    Garcia Ordonez MA, Colmenero JD, Jimenez Onate F, Matos F, Martinez J, Juarez C. Diagnostic usefulness of percutaneous liver biopsy in HIV-infected patients with fever of unknown origin. J Infect 1999; 38: 9498.
  • 30
    Walker R, Karunasaagarar K, Lorenz E. Pyrexia of unknown origin: A review of the role of FDG-PET/CT. J Nucl Med 2007; 48 (Suppl. 2): 210P.
  • 31
    Castaigne C, Tondeur M, de Wit S, Hildebrand M, Clumeck N, Dusart M. Clinical value of FDG-PET/CT for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated fever of unknown origin: a retrospective study. Nucl Med Commun 2009; 30: 4147.