Incentivized recruitment of a population sample to a mobile HIV testing service increases the yield of newly diagnosed cases, including those in need of antiretroviral therapy

Authors

  • K Kranzer,

    1. Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    2. The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
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  • D Govindasamy,

    1. The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
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  • N van Schaik,

    1. The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
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  • E Thebus,

    1. The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
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  • N Davies,

    1. The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
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  • MA Zimmermann,

    1. Broccoli Project, Cape Town, South Africa
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  • S Jeneker,

    1. The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
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  • SD Lawn,

    1. Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    2. The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
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  • R Wood,

    1. The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    2. South African Centre for Epidemiological Modeling and Analysis (SACEMA), Stellenbosch, South Africa
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  • L-G Bekker

    1. The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
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Dr Katharina Kranzer, Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK. Tel: +44 780 923 7246; e-mail: katharina.kranzer@lshtm.ac.uk

Abstract

Objective

The aim of the study was to compare the yields of newly diagnosed cases of HIV infection and advanced immunodeficiency between individuals attending a mobile HIV counselling and testing (HCT) service as participants in a population-based HIV seroprevalence survey and those accessing the same service as volunteers for routine testing.

Methods

The study was conducted in a peri-urban township within the Cape Metropolitan Region, South Africa. Survey participants (recruited testers) were randomly selected, visited at home and invited to attend the mobile HCT service. They received 70 South African Rand food vouchers for participating in the survey, but could choose to test anonymously. The yield of HIV diagnoses was compared with that detected in members of the community who voluntarily attended the same HIV testing facility prior to the survey and did not receive incentives (voluntary testers).

Results

A total of 1813 individuals were included in the analysis (936 recruited and 877 voluntary testers). The prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV infection was 10.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.0–13.1%] among recruited testers and 5.0% (3.7–6.7%) among voluntary testers. The prevalence of severe immune deficiency (CD4 count ≤200 cells/μL) among recruited and voluntary testers was 17.8% (10.9–26.7%) and 4.6% (0.0–15.4%), respectively. Linkage to HIV care in recruited testers with CD4 counts ≤350 cells/μL was 78.8%.

Conclusion

Compared with routine voluntary HCT, selection and invitation in combination with incentives doubled the yield of newly diagnosed HIV infections and increased the yield almost fourfold of individuals needing antiretroviral therapy. This may be an important strategy to increase community-based HIV diagnosis and access to care.

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