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Keywords:

  • antiretroviral therapy;
  • dynamics;
  • HIV;
  • neurocognitive function

Background

Improvements in neurocognitive (NC) function have been associated with commencing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected subjects. However, the dynamics of such improvements are poorly understood.

Methods

We assessed changes in NC function via a validated computerized battery (CogState™, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) at baseline and after 24 and 48 weeks in a subset of therapy-naïve neuro-asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects, randomized to commence three different antiretroviral regimens.

Results

Of 28 subjects enrolled in the study, nine, eight and 11 were randomly allocated to commence tenofovir/emtricitabine with efavirenz (arm 1), atazanavir/ritonavir (arm 2) and zidovudine/abacavir (arm 3), respectively. Overall improvements in NC function were observed at week 24 and function continued to improve at week 48 (changes in z-score for overall cognitive global score of 0.16 and 0.18 at weeks 24 and 48, respectively). Within the NC speed domains, generally greater improvements were observed in arms 2 and 3, compared with arm 1 (changes in z-score for composite speed scores at weeks 24/48 of 0.16/0.16, –0.29/–0.24 and –0.15/–0.31 in arms 1, 2 and 3, respectively; P= 0.04 for change at week 48 in arm 3 versus arm 1). Finally, improvements in executive function occurred later (only observed at week 48) and were driven by improvements in arm 3 (z-score changes of 0.23, 0.06 and –0.78 in arms 1, 2 and 3, respectively; P= 0.02 for change in arm 3 versus arm 1).

Conclusion

Improvements in NC function continue over the first year after initiating antiretroviral therapy in neuro-asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects.