• blepharospasm;
  • botulinum toxin;
  • oromandibular dystonia

Amongst all regions of the body, the craniocervical region is the one most frequently affected by dystonia. Whilst blepharospasm – involuntary bilateral eye closure – is produced by spasmodic contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscles, oromandibular dystonia may cause jaw closure with trismus and bruxism, or involuntary jaw opening or deviation, interfering with speaking and chewing. Both forms of dystonia can be effectively treated with botulinum toxin injection. This article summarizes injection techniques in both forms of dystonia and compares doses, potency and efficacy of different commercially available toxins, including Botox®, Dysport®, Xeomin® and Myobloc®/NeuroBloc®.