SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • management guideline;
  • neurosurgery;
  • Parkinson's disease;
  • pharmacotherapy;
  • review

To provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of late (complicated) Parkinson's disease (PD), based on a review of the literature. Complicated PD refers to patients suffering from the classical motor syndrome of PD along with other motor or non-motor complications, either disease-related (e.g. freezing) or treatment-related (e.g. dyskinesias or hallucinations). MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and INAHTA database literature searches were conducted. National guidelines were requested from all EFNS societies. Non-European guidelines were searched for using MEDLINE. Part II of the guidelines deals with treatment of motor and neuropsychiatric complications and autonomic disturbances. For each topic, a list of therapeutic interventions is provided, including classification of evidence. Following this, recommendations for management are given, alongside ratings of efficacy. Classifications of evidence and ratings of efficacy are made according to EFNS guidance. In cases where there is insufficient scientific evidence, a consensus statement (‘good practice point’) is made.