Self-reported depression and anti-depressant medication use in essential tremor: cross-sectional and prospective analyses in a population-based study

Authors

  • E. D. Louis,

    1. G.H. Sergievsky Center, Department of Neurology and Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA and Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • J. Benito-León,

    1. Department of Neurology, University Hospital ‘12 de Octubre’, Madrid, Spain. The other members of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) Study Group are listed in the Acknowledgments
    Search for more papers by this author
  • F. Bermejo-Pareja,

    1. Department of Neurology, University Hospital ‘12 de Octubre’, Madrid, Spain. The other members of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) Study Group are listed in the Acknowledgments
    Search for more papers by this author
  • On behalf of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) Study Group

    1. G.H. Sergievsky Center, Department of Neurology and Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA and Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Search for more papers by this author

Dr Elan Louis, Unit 198, Neurological Institute, 710 West 168th Street, NY 10032, USA (tel.: +212 305 9194; fax: +212 305 1304; e-mail: EDL2@columbia.edu).

Abstract

There are few data on the co-morbidity of essential tremor (ET) with depression. To assess the associations of ET with self-reported depression and antidepressant medication use. In a population-based study in central Spain, participants were evaluated at baseline (1994–1995) and 3 years later. Self-reported depression and use of antidepressant medications were evaluated at each assessment. In cross-sectional analyses, prevalent ET cases were twice more probably than controls to report depression [103 (43.8%) of 235 cases versus 1137 (26.0%) of 4379 controls; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.66–2.93, P < 0.001] and three times more probably to be taking antidepressant medications [16 (6.8%) cases versus 113 (2.6%) controls; adjusted OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.91–5.82, P = 0.001]. In prospective analyses, baseline self-reported depression (adjusted RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.11–2.89, P = 0.018) and, perhaps, baseline use of antidepressant medication (adjusted RR 1.90, 95% CI 0.59–6.05, P = 0.28) were associated with incident ET. Rather than being totally benign, ET seems to be associated with a mood disorder. Furthermore, as well as being a secondary response to disease manifestations, this mood disorder may be a primary feature of the underlying disease.

Ancillary