Other members of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) Study Group are listed in the Acknowledgements.
Population-based case–control study of morale in Parkinson’s disease
Article first published online: 23 DEC 2008
© 2008 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2008 EFNS
European Journal of Neurology
Volume 16, Issue 3, pages 330–336, March 2009
How to Cite
Benito-León, J., Louis, E. D., Bermejo-Pareja, F. and on behalf of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) Study Group (2009), Population-based case–control study of morale in Parkinson’s disease. European Journal of Neurology, 16: 330–336. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02428.x
- Issue published online: 5 FEB 2009
- Article first published online: 23 DEC 2008
- Received 31 July 2008 Accepted 31 October 2008
- Parkinson’s disease;
- quality of life
Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with cognitive, psychiatric, and motor features. Each could contribute to a poor sense of well-being and low morale. A systematic study of morale in community-dwelling PD cases has not been performed.
Methods: A total of 52 PD cases and 260 matched controls from three Spanish communities were assessed using the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) (range = 0[low morale]–17). The PGCMS includes three dimensions of psychological well-being: agitation, lonely dissatisfaction, and attitude toward own aging.
Results: The PGCMS score was lower in PD cases than controls (8.71 ± 3.64 vs. 11.03 ± 2.77, P < 0.001), as were the agitation subscore (3.36 ± 1.91 vs. 4.07 ± 1.59, P < 0.05), lonely dissatisfaction subscore (3.48 ± 1.36 vs. 4.11 ± 1.12, P < 0.01), and attitude toward own aging subscore (1.86 ± 1.37 vs. 2.85 ± 1.13, P < 0.001). In a linear regression analysis that adjusted for depressive symptoms and other covariates, PD cases had a lower PGCMS score than controls (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: Morale was significantly lower in community-dwelling PD cases than matched controls. The detection and possible treatment of this problem may improve the psychological well-being of patients with this disease.