Focal limb dystonia

Authors

  • C. Pont-Sunyer,

    1. Parkinson disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Institut Clínic de Neurociències (ICN), Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Hospital Clínic, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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  • M. J. Martí,

    1. Parkinson disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Institut Clínic de Neurociències (ICN), Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Hospital Clínic, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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  • E. Tolosa

    1. Parkinson disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Institut Clínic de Neurociències (ICN), Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Hospital Clínic, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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E. Tolosa, Parkinson disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clínic, c. Villarroel 170, 08036, Barcelona, Spain (tel.: +34 93227 5785; fax: +34 93227 5783; e-mail: etolosa@clinic.ub.es).

Abstract

Limb dystonia (LD) refers to dystonia affecting one arm or leg. Depending on the site of onset, age at onset, and the etiology, progression and prognosis will be different. Usually young-onset primary dystonia affects the lower limbs and tends to generalize, while in adult-onset, it appears in the arm and remains focal. Lower limb dystonia in adults is rare as a primary cause, and parkinsonism or other neurological diseases must always be ruled out. In the text that follows, we review the main clinical features of the primary and secondary limb dystonias considering the age at onset and etiology.

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