Economic burden of Parkinson’s disease in Singapore

Authors

  • Y. J. Zhao,

    1. Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore
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  • L. C. S. Tan,

    1. Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, USA National Parkinson Foundation International Centre of Excellence
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  • S. C. Li,

    1. Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    2. Discipline of Pharmacy & Experimental Pharmacology, School of Biomedical Sciences & Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Australia
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  • W. L. Au,

    1. Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, USA National Parkinson Foundation International Centre of Excellence
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  • S. H. Seah,

    1. Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, USA National Parkinson Foundation International Centre of Excellence
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  • P. N. Lau,

    1. Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, USA National Parkinson Foundation International Centre of Excellence
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  • N. Luo,

    1. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health & Centre for Health Services Research, National University of Singapore, Singapore
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  • H. L. Wee

    1. Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    2. Department of Rheumatology & Immunology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
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Dr H-L WEE, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore (tel: +65 6516 5530; fax: +65 6778 5698; e-mail: phawhl@nus.edu.sg).

Abstract

Background:  This study was carried out to evaluate the economic burden of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and factors independently associated with individual components of total cost in Singapore.

Methods:  A consecutive sample of 195 patients with PD (mean age: 68.2, men: 51.8%) attending a tertiary neuroscience clinic were identified and interviewed using standardized questionnaires including a financial burden questionnaire, two Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire.

Results:  Annual total cost of PD from a societal perspective was SGD11345 (USD10129) per patient, with direct cost accounted for 38.5% and indirect cost 61.5%. The main cost components for direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost was pharmacotherapy (50.4%), home care (76.1%), and productivity loss (97.9%), respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, higher education, younger age and longer duration of PD were associated with higher total cost.

Conclusions:  Parkinson’s disease exerts a considerable burden on patients, health care system and society in Singapore. As productivity loss accounts for a large share of the economic burden imposed by PD, treatments and health care programmes with potential for returning patients to higher productivity are urgently needed.

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