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EFNS GUIDELINES/CME ARTICLE
Nystagmus and oscillopsia
Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011
© 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS
European Journal of Neurology
Volume 19, Issue 1, pages 6–14, January 2012
How to Cite
Straube, A., Bronstein, A. and Straumann, D. (2012), Nystagmus and oscillopsia. European Journal of Neurology, 19: 6–14. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03503.x
- Issue published online: 19 DEC 2011
- Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011
- Received 7 July 2011 Accepted 12 July 2011
- neurological disorder;
- ocular movements;
- vestibular disorder
The ocular motor system consists of several subsystems, including the vestibular ocular nystagmus saccade system, the pursuit system, the fixation and gaze-holding system and the vergence system. All these subsystems aid the stabilization of the images on the retina during eye and head movements and any kind of disturbance of one of the systems can cause instability of the eyes (e.g. nystagmus) or an inadequate eye movement causing a mismatch between head and eye movement (e.g. bilateral vestibular failure). In both situations, the subjects experience a movement of the world (oscillopsia) which is quite disturbing. New insights into the patho-physiology of some of the ocular motor disorders have helped to establish new treatment options, in particular in downbeat nystagmus, upbeat nystagmus, periodic alternating nystagmus, acquired pendular nystagmus and paroxysmal vestibular episodes/attacks. The discussed patho-physiology of these disorders and the current literature on treatment options are discussed and practical treatment recommendations are given in the paper.