SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Saiki RK, Scharf S, Faloona F, et al. Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science 1985; 230: 13501354.
  • 2
    Mullis KB, Faloona FA. Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction. Methods Enzymol 1987; 155: 335350.
  • 3
    Brainin M, Barnes M, Baron JC, et al.Guidance for the preparation of neurological management guidelines by EFNS scientific task forces – revised recommendations. Eur J Neurol 2004; 11: 577581.
  • 4
    Fodor PA, Levin MJ, Weinberg A, Sandberg E, Sylman J, Tyler KL. Atypical herpes simplex virus encephalitis diagnosed by PCR amplification of viral DNA from CSF. Neurology 1998; 52: 554559.
  • 5
    Koskiniemi M, Rantalaiho T, Piiparinen H, et al. Infections of the central nervous system of suspected viral origin: a collaborative study from Finland. J Neurovirol 2001; 7: 400408.
  • 6
    Davies NWS, Brown LJ, Gonde J, et al. Factors influencing PCR detection of viruses in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with suspected CNS infections. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76: 8287.
  • 7
    Jeffery KJM, Read SJ, Peto TEA, Mayon-White RT, Bangham CRM. Diagnosis of viral infections of the central nervous system: clinical interpretation of PCR results. Lancet 1997; 349: 313317.
  • 8
    DeBiasi RL, Tyler KL. Molecular methods for diagnosis of viral encephalitis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004; 17: 903925.
  • 9
    Cinque P, Bossolasco S, Lundkvist A. Molecular analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in viral diseases of the central nervous system. J Clin Virol 2003; 26: 128.
  • 10
    Davis LE, Tyler KL. Molecular diagnosis of CNS viral infections. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76: 14.
  • 11
    Kennedy PGE, Chaudhuri A. Herpes simplex encephalitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 73: 237238.
  • 12
    Mitchell BM, Bloom DC, Cohrs RJ, Gilden DH, Kennedy PG. Herpes simplex virus-1 and Varicella-Zoster virus latency in ganglia. J Neurovirol 2003; 9: 194204.
  • 13
    Steiner I, Budka H, Chaudhuri A, et al. Viral meningoencephalitis: a review of diagnostic methods and guidelines for management. Eur J Neurolol 2010; 17: 999-e57.
  • 14
    Lakeman FD, Whitley RJ. Diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis: application of polymerase chain reaction to cerebrospinal fluid from brain-biopsied patients and correlation with disease. J Infect Dis 1995; 171: 857863.
  • 15
    Tebas P, Nease RF, Storch GA. Use of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis: a decision analysis model. Am J Med 1998; 105: 287295.
  • 16
    Steiner I, Kennedy PGE, Pachner AR. The neurotropic herpes viruses: herpes simplex and Varicella-Zoster. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 10151028.
  • 17
    Guffond T, Dewilde A, Lobert P-E, Caparros-Lefebvre D, Hober D, Wattre P. Significance and clinical relevance of the detection of herpes simplex virus DNA by the polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with presumed encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18: 744749.
  • 18
    Weil AA, Glaser CA, Amad Z, Forghani B. Patients with suspected herpes simplex encephalitis: rethinking an initial negative polymerase chain reaction result. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 11541157.
  • 19
    Cinque P, Cleator GM, Weber T, Monteyne P, Sindic CJ, van Loon AM. The role of laboratory investigation in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected herpes simplex encephalitis: a consensus report. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996; 61: 339345.
  • 20
    Wildemann B, Ehrhart K, Storch-Hagenlocher B, et al. Quantitation of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA in cells of cerebrospinal fluid of patients with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Neurology 1997; 48: 13411346.
  • 21
    Hjalmarsson A, Granath F, Forsgren M, Brytting M, Blomqvist P, Sköldenberg B. Prognostic value of intrathecal antibody production and DNA viral load in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. J Neurol 2009; 256: 12431251.
  • 22
    Kennedy PG, Cohrs RJ. Varicella-Zoster virus human ganglionic latency: a current summary. J Neurovirol 2010; 16: 411418.
  • 23
    Gilden DH, Wright RR, Schneck SA, Gwaltney JM Jr, Mahalingam R. Zoster sine herpete, a clinical variant. Ann Neurol 1994; 35: 530533.
  • 24
    Nagel MA, Gilden DH. The protean neurologic manifestations of Varicella-Zoster virus. Clevel Clin J Med 2007; 74: 489504.
  • 25
    Corral I, Quereda C, Antela A, et al. Neurological complications of Varicella-Zoster virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: changes in prevalence and diagnostic utility of polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurovirol 2003; 9: 129135.
  • 26
    Persson A, Bergstrom T, Lindh M, Namvar L, Studahl M. Varicella-Zoster virus CNS disease – viral load, clinical manifestations and sequels. J Clin Virol 2009; 46: 249253.
  • 27
    Kennedy PGE. Zoster sine herpete – it would be rash to ignore it. Neurology 2011; 76: 416417.
  • 28
    Gilden DH, Bennett JL, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Song DD, Yee AS, Steiner I. The value of cerebrospinal fluid antiviral antibody in the diagnosis of neurologic disease produced by varicella zoster virus. J Neurol Sci 1998; 159: 140144.
  • 29
    Cinque P, Cleator GM, Weber T, et al. Diagnosis and clinical management of neurological disorders caused by cytomegalovirus in AIDS patients, European Union concerted action on virus meningitis and encephalitis. J Neurovirol 1998; 4: 120132.
  • 30
    Wolf DG, Spector SA. Diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus central nervous system disease in AIDS patients by DNA amplification from cerebrospinal fluid. J Infect Dis 1992; 166: 14121415.
  • 31
    Ginocchio CC. Laboratory diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) central nervous system disease in AIDS patients. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2000; 16: 447453.
  • 32
    Gozlan J, el Amrani M, Baudrimont M, et al. A prospective evaluation of clinical criteria and polymerase chain reaction assay of cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus-related neurological diseases during AIDS. AIDS 1995; 9: 253260.
  • 33
    d'Arminio Montforte A, Cinque P, Vago L, et al. A comparison of brain biopsy and CSF-PCR in the diagnosis of CNS lesions in AIDS patients. J Neurol 1997; 244: 3539.
  • 34
    Cinque P, Brytting M, Vago L, et al. Epstein–Barr virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with AIDS-related primary lymphoma of the central nervous system. Lancet 1993; 342: 398401.
  • 35
    Majid A, Galetta SL, Sweeney CJ, et al. Epstein–Barr virus myeloradiculitis and encephalomyeloradiculitis. Brain 2002; 125: 159165.
  • 36
    Cinque P, Vago L, Dahl H, et al. Polymerase chain reaction on cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of virus-associated opportunistic diseases of the central nervous system in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 1996; 10: 951958.
  • 37
    Romero JR. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of the enteroviruses. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999; 123: 11611169.
  • 38
    Rotbart HA, Sawyer MH, Fast S, et al. Diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis by using PCR with a colorimetric microwell detection assay. J Clin Microbiol 1994; 32: 25902592.
  • 39
    Sawyer MH, Holland D, Aintablian N, Connor JD, Keyser EF, Waecker NJ Jr. Diagnosis of enteroviral central nervous system infection by polymerase chain reaction during a large community outbreak. J Pediatr Infect Dis 1994; 13: 177182.
  • 40
    DeBiasi RL, Tyler KL. Polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis and management of central nervous system infections. Arch Neurol 1999; 56: 12151219.
  • 41
    Pérez-Vélez CM, Anderson MS, Robinson CC, et al.Outbreak of neurologic enterovirus type 71 disease: a diagnostic challenge. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: 950957.
  • 42
    Stellrecht KA, Harding I, Woron AM, Lepow ML, Venezia RA. The impact of an enteroviral RT-PCR assay on the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis and patient management. J Clin Virol 2002; 25: S19S26.
  • 43
    Berger J, Concha M. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: the evolution of a disease once considered rare. J Neurovirol 1995; 1: 518.
  • 44
    Steiner I. Quantitative risk-benefit analysis of natalizumab. Neurology 2009; 72: 17911792.
  • 45
    Weber T, Turner RW, Frye S, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy diagnosed by amplification of JC virus-specific DNA from cerebrospinal fluid. AIDS 1994; 8: 4957.
  • 46
    Koralnik IJ, Boden D, Mai VX, Lord CI, Letvin NL. JC virus DNA load in patients with and without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Neurology 1999; 52: 253260.
  • 47
    Giri JA, Gregoresky J, Silguero P, Garcia Messina O, Planes N. Polyoma virus JC DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction in CSF of HIV infected patients with suspected progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Am Clin Lab 2001; 20: 3335.
  • 48
    Weber T, Turner RW, Frye S, et al. Specific diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy by polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis 1994; 169: 11381141.
  • 49
    Weber T, Klapper PE, Cleator GM, et al. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of JC virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid: a quality control study. European Union concerted action on viral meningitis and encephalitis. J Virol Methods 1997; 69: 231237.
  • 50
    Hirsch HH, Meylan PR, Zimmerli W, et al. HIV-1-infected patients with focal neurologic signs: diagnostic role of PCR for Toxoplasma gondii, Epstein–Barr virus, and JC virus. Clin Microbiol Infect 1998; 4: 577584.
  • 51
    García de Viedma D, Infantes MD, Miralles P, et al. JC virus load in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: analysis of the correlation between the viral burden in cerebrospinal fluid, patient survival, and the volume of Neurological lesions. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 15681575.
  • 52
    Yiannoutsos CT, Major EO, Curfman B, et al. Relation of JC virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid to survival in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with biopsy-proven progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Ann Neurol 1999; 45: 816821.
  • 53
    Marzocchetti A, Sanguinetti M, Giambenedetto SD, et al. Characterization of JC virus in cerebrospinal fluid from HIV-1 infected patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: insights into viral pathogenesis and disease prognosis. J Neurovirol 2007; 13: 338346.
  • 54
    McArthur JC, McClernon DR, Cronin MF, et al. Relationship between human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia and viral load in cerebrospinal fluid and brain. Ann Neurol 1997; 42: 689698.
  • 55
    Cinque P, Bestetti A, Morelli P, Presi S. Molecular analysis of cerebrospinal fluid: potential for the study of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system. J Neurovirol 2000; 6: S95S102.
  • 56
    Puccioni-Sohler M, Rios M, Carvalho SM, et al. Diagnosis of HAM/TSP based on CSF proviral HTLV-1 DNA and HTLV-1 antibody index. Neurology 2001; 57: 725727.
  • 57
    Andrade RG, Ribeiro MA, Namen-Lopes MS, et al. Evaluation of the use of real-time PCR for human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 and 2 as a confirmatory test in screening for blood donors. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2010; 43: 111115.
  • 58
    Chiba N, Murayama SY, Morozumi M, et al. Rapid detection of eight causative pathogens for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis by real-time PCR. J Infect Chemother 2009; 15: 9298.
  • 59
    Welinder-Olsson C, Dotevall L, Hogevik H, et al. Comparison of broad-range bacterial PCR and culture of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of community acquired bacterial meningitis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2007; 13: 879886.
  • 60
    Schuurman T, de Boer RF, Kooistra-Smid AMD, van Zwet AA. Prospective study for use of PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA from cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in a clinical setting. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 734740.
  • 61
    Chakravarti P, Das BK, Kapil A. Application of 16S rDNA based seminested PCR for diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis. Indian J Med Res 2009; 129: 182188.
  • 62
    Bǿving MK, Pedersen LN, Mǿller JK. Eight-Plex PCR and liquid-array detection of bacterial and viral pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected meningitis. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 908913.
  • 63
    Abdeldaim GM, Strålin K, Korsgaard J, Blomberg J, Welinder-Olsson C, Herrmann B. Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza and Neisseria meningitides. BMC Microbiol 2010; 10: 310.
  • 64
    Lu JJ, Perng CL, Lee SY, Wan CC. Use of PCR with universal primers and restriction endonuclease digestions for detection and identification of common bacterial pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 20762080.
  • 65
    Chaudhuri A, Martinez-Martin P, Kennedy PG, et al. EFNS guideline on the management of community acquired bacterial meningitis: report of an EFNS Task Force on acute bacterial meningitis in older children and adults. Eur J Neurol 2008; 15: 649659.
  • 66
    Banks JT, Bharara S, Tubbs RS, et al. Polymerase chain reaction for the rapid detection of cerebrospinal fluid shunt or ventriculostomy infections. Neurosurgery 2005; 57: 12371243.
  • 67
    Saravolatz LD, Manzor O, VanderVelde N, Pawlak J, Belian B. Broad range bacterial polymerase chain reaction for early detection of bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 4045.
  • 68
    Pai M, Flores LL, Pai N, Hubbard A, Riley LW, Colford JM Jr. Diagnostic accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests for tuberculous meningitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2003; 3: 633643.
  • 69
    Haldar S, Sharma N, Gupta VK, Tyagi JS. Efficient diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in cerebrospinal fluid filtrates using PCR. J Med Microbiol 2009; 58: 616624.
  • 70
    Helb D, Jones M, Story E, et al. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance by use of on-demand, near patient technology. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48: 229237.
  • 71
    van Kampsen SC, Anthony RM, Klaster PR. The realistic performance achievable with mycobacterial automated culture systems in high and low prevalence settings. BMC Infect Dis 2010; 10: 93.
  • 72
    Michael B, Menezes BF, Cunniffe J, et al. Effect of delayed lumbar punctures on the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in adults. Emerg Med J 2010; 27: 433438.
  • 73
    Thwaites GE, Caws M, Chau TT, et al. Comparison of conventional bacteriology with nucleic acid amplification (amplified mycobacterium direct test) for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis before and after inception of antituberculous chemotherapy. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 9961002.
  • 74
    Mygland A, Ljøstad U, Fingerl V, Rupprecht T, Schmutzhard E, Steiner I. EFNS guideline on the diagnosis and management of European Lyme neuroborreliosis. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17: 816.
  • 75
    Wu Y-D, Chen L-H, Wu X-J, et al. Gram stain-specific probe-based real time PCR for diagnosis and discrimination of bacterial neonatal sepsis. J Clin Microbiol 2008; 46: 26132619.
  • 76
    Seki M, Yamashita Y, Torigoe H, Tsuda H, Sato S, Maeno M. Loop mediated isothermal amplification method targeting the lytA gene for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 15811586.
  • 77
    Ndao M. Diagnosis of parasitic diseases: old and new approaches. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2009; 2009: 278246.
  • 78
    Keiser J, Utzinger J. Food-borne trematodiases. Clin Microbiol Rev 2009; 22: 466483.
  • 79
    Keiser J, Duthaler U, Utzinger J. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of food-borne trematode infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2009; 23: 513520.
  • 80
    Shokoples SE, Ndao M, Kowalewska-Grochowska K, Yanow SK. Multiplexed real-time PCR assay for discrimination of Plasmodium species with improved sensitivity for mixed infections. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 975980.
  • 81
    Ramanathan RR, Burbelo PD, Groot S, Iadarola MJ, Neva FA, Nutman TB. A luciferase immunoprecipitation systems assay enhances the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. J Infect Dis 2009; 198: 444451.
  • 82
    Parida M, Sannarangaiah S, Dash PK, Rao PV, Morita K. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): a new generation of innovative gene amplification technique, perspectives in clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases. Rev Med Virol 2008; 18: 407421.
  • 83
    Muldrew KL. Molecular diagnostics of infectious diseases. Curr Opin Pediatr 2009; 21: 102111.
  • 84
    Taniuchi M, Verweij JJ, Noor Z, et al. High throughput multiplex PCR and probe based detection with Luminex beads for seven intestinal parasites. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2011; 84: 332337.
  • 85
    MacLean RC, Hafez N, Tripathi S, Childress CG, Ghatak NR, Marciano-Cabral F. Identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in paraffin-embedded CNS tissue from an HIV+ individual by PCR. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2010; 57: 289294.
  • 86
    Ahmad AF, Andrew PW, Kilvington S. Development of a Nested PCR for environmental detection of the pathogenic free-living amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris. J Eukaryot Microbiol 2011; 58: 269271.
  • 87
    Kiderlen AF, Radam E, Lewin A. Detection of Balamuthia mandrillaris DNA by real time PCR targeting the RNase P gene. BMC Microbiol 2008; 8: 210.
  • 88
    Visvesvara GS, Moura H, Schuster FL. Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2007; 50: 126.
  • 89
    Madarová L, Trnková K, Feiková S, Klement C, Obernauerová M. A real-time PCR diagnostic method for detection of Naegleria fowleri. Exp Parasitol 2010; 126: 3741.
  • 90
    Visvesvara GS. Amebic meningoencephalitides and keratitis: challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Current Opinionin Infectious Diseases 2010; 23: 590594.
  • 91
    Pınar A, Akyön Y, Alp A, Ergüven S. Adaptation of a sensitive DNA extraction method for detection of Entamoeba histolytica by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mikrobiyolji bulteni 2010; 44: 453459.
  • 92
    Stark D, A-Qassab SE, Barratt JL. Evaluation of multiplex tandem real-time PCR for detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia intestinalis in clinical stool samples. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49: 257262.
  • 93
    Hamzah Z, Petmitr S, Mungthin M, Leelayoova S, Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr P. Development of multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Entamoeba histolytica, entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii in clinical specimens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2010; 83: 909913.
  • 94
    Krause PJ, Telford SR 3rd, Spielman A, et al. Concurrent Lyme disease and babesiosis. Evidence for increased severity and duration of illness. JAMA 1996; 275: 16571660.
  • 95
    Vannier E, Gewurz BE, Krause PJ. Human babesiosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2008; 22: 469488.
  • 96
    Schneider P, Wolters L, Schoone G, et al. Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification is more convenient than real-time PCR for quantification of Plasmodium falciparum. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 402405.
  • 97
    Demas A, Oberstaller J, DeBarry J, et al. Applied genomics: data mining reveals species-specific malaria diagnostic targets more sensitive than 18S rRNA. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49: 24112418.
  • 98
    Schoone GJ, Oskam L, Kroon NC, Schallig HD, Omar SA. Detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum in blood samples using quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 40724075.
  • 99
    Mens PF, Schoone GJ, Kager PA. Detection and identification of human Plasmodium species with real-time quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. Malar J 2006; 5: 80.
  • 100
    Poon LL, Wong BW, Ma EH, et al. Sensitive and inexpensive molecular test for falciparum malaria: detection Plasmodium falciparum DNA directly from heat-treated blood by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Clin Chem 2006; 52: 303306.
  • 101
    Paris DH, Imwong M, Faiz AM. Loop-mediated isothermal PCR (LAMP) for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2007; 77: 972976.
  • 102
    Yamamura M, Makimura K, Ota Y. Evaluation of a new rapid molecular diagnostic system for Plasmodium falciparum combined with DNA filter paper, loop mediated isothermal amplification, and melting curve analysis. Jpn J Infect Dis 2009; 62: 2025.
  • 103
    McNamara DT, Kasehagen LJ, Grimberg BT, Cole-Tobian J, Collins WE, Zimmerman PA. Diagnosing infection levels of four human parasite species by a polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere-based assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006; 74: 413421.
  • 104
    Zhong KJ, Kain KC. Evaluation of a colorimetric PCR-based assay to diagnose Plasmodium falciparum malaria in travelers. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 339341.
  • 105
    Calderaro A, Piccolo G, Zuelli C, et al. Evaluation of a new plate hybridization assay for the laboratory diagnosis of imported malaria in Italy. New Microbiol 2004; 27: 163171.
  • 106
    Buates S, Bantuchai S, Sattabongkot J. Development of a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for clinical detection of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. Parasitol Int 2010; 59: 414420.
  • 107
    Cox-Singh J, Hiu J, Lucas SB, et al. Severe malaria – a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings: a case report. Malar J 2011; 9: 10.
  • 108
    Romand S, Chosson M, Franck J, et al. Usefulness of quantitative polymerase chain reaction in amniotic fluid as early prognostic marker of fetal infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 797802.
  • 109
    Alfonso Y, Fraga J, Fonseca C. Molecular diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cerebrospinal fluid from AIDS patients. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res 2009; 6: 6.
  • 110
    Mesquita RT, Vidal JE, Pereira-Chioccola VL. Molecular diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis: comparing markers that determine Toxoplasma gondii by PCR in peripheral blood from HIV-infected patients. Braz J Infect Dis 2010; 14: 346350.
  • 111
    Lau YL, Meganathan P, Sonaimuthu P, Thiruvengadam G, Nissapatorn V, Chen Y. Specific, sensitive, and rapid diagnosis of active toxoplasmosis by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method using blood samples from patients. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48: 398702.
  • 112
    Duarte AM, de Andrade HM, do Monte SJ, de Toledo Vde P, Guimaraes TM. Assessment of chemiluminescence and PCR effectiveness in relation to conventional serological tests for the diagnosis of Chagas' disease. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2006; 39: 385387.
  • 113
    Diez M, Favaloro L, Bertolotti A, et al. Usefulness of PCR strategies for early diagnosis of Chagas' disease reactivation and treatment follow-up in heart transplantation. Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 16331640.
  • 114
    Lescure FX, Le Loup G, Freilij H, et al. Chagas disease: changes in knowledge and management. Lancet 2010; 10: 556570.
  • 115
    Murcia L, Carrilero B, Muñoz MJ, Iborra MA, Segovia M. Usefulness of PCR for monitoring benznidazole response in patients with chronic Chagas' disease: a prospective study in a non-disease-endemic country. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65: 17591764.
  • 116
    Thekisoe OM, Kuboki N, Nambota A, et al. Species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of trypanosomosis. Acta Trop 2007; 102: 182189.
  • 117
    Chappuis F, Loutan L, Simarro P, Lejon V, Büscher P. Options for field diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005; 18: 133146.
  • 118
    Deborggraeve S, Lejon V, Ekangu RA, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of PCR in gambiense sleeping sickness diagnosis, staging and post-treatment follow-up: a 2 year longitudinal study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2011; 5: e972.
  • 119
    Deborggraeve S, Büscher P. Molecular diagnostics for sleeping sickness: what is the benefit for the patient? Lancet 2010; 10: 433439.
  • 120
    Becker S, Franco JR, Simarro PP, Stich A, Abel PM, Steverding D. Real-time PCR for detection of Trypansoma brucei in human blood samples. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2004; 50: 193199.
  • 121
    Matovu E, Mugasa CM, Ekangu RA, et al. Phase II evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of PCR and NASBA followed by oligochromatography for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in clinical samples from D.R. Congo and Uganda. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010; 4: e737.
  • 122
    Njiru ZK. Rapid and sensitive detection of human African trypanosomiasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral-flow dipstick. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2011; 69: 205209.
  • 123
    Wei FR, Liu HX, Lv S, Hu L, Zhang Y. Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis larva in Pomacea canaliculata. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 2010; 28: 355358.
  • 124
    Liu CY, Song HQ, Zhang RL, et al. Specific detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the snail Achatina fulica using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Mol Cell Probes 2011; 25: 164167.
  • 125
    Simsek S, Kaplan M, Ozercan IH. A comprehensive molecular survey of Echinococcus granulosus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues in human isolates in Turkey. Parasitol Res 2011; 109: 411416.
  • 126
    Fink DL, Fahle GA, Fischer S, Fedorko DF, Nutman TB. Toward molecular parasitologic diagnosis: enhanced diagnostic sensitivity for filarial infections in mobile populations. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49: 4247.
  • 127
    Sugiyama H, Morishima Y, Rangsiruji A, Binchai S, Ketudat P, Kawanaka M. Application of multiplex PCR for species discrimination using individual metacercariae of Paragonimus occurring in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2006; 3: 4852.
  • 128
    Chen MX, Ai L, Zhang RL, et al. Sensitive and rapid detection of Paragonimus westermani infection in humans and animals by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Parasitol Res 2011; 108: 11931198.
  • 129
    Pontes LA, Dias-Neto E, Rabello A. Detection by polymerase chain reaction of Schistosoma mansoni DANN in human serum and feces. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2002; 66: 157162.
  • 130
    Oliveira LM, Santos HL, Goncalves MM, Barreto MG, Peralta JM. Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction as an additional tool for the diagnosis of low-intensity Schistosoma mansoni infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2010; 68: 416421.
  • 131
    Gomes AL, Melo FL, Werkhauser RP, Abath FG. Development of a real time polymerase chain reaction for quantitation of Schistosoma mansoni DNA. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2006; 1: 133136.
  • 132
    Wichmann D, Panning M, Quack T, et al. Diagnosing schistosomiasis by detection of cell-free parasite DNA in human plasma. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2009; 3: e422.
  • 133
    Akinwale OP, Laurent T, Mertens P, et al. Detection of schistosomes polymerase chain reaction amplified DNA by oligochromatographic dipstick. Mol Biochem Parasitol 2008; 160: 167170.
  • 134
    Ramachandran S, Gam AA, Neva FA. Molecular differences between several species of strongyloides and comparison of selected isolates of S. stercoralis using a polymerase chain reaction-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1997; 56: 6165.
  • 135
    Verweij JJ, Canales M, Polman K, et al. Molecular diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in faecal samples using real-time PCR. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2009; 103: 342346.
  • 136
    Basuni M, Muhi J, Othman N, et al. A pentaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of four species of soil-transmitted helminthes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2011; 84: 338343.
  • 137
    Janwan P, Intapan PM, Thanchomnang T, Lulitanond V, Anamnart W, Maleewong W. Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. Parasitol Res 2012; 111: 8996.
  • 138
    Almeida CR, Ojoi EP, Nunes CM, et al. Taenia solium DNA is present in the cerebrospinal fluid of neurocysticercosis patients and can be used for diagnosis. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2006; 256: 307310.
  • 139
    Michelet L, Fleury A, Sciutto E, et al. Human neurocysticercosis: comparison of different diagnostic tests using cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49: 195200.
  • 140
    Mayta H, Gilman RH, Prendergast E, et al. Nested PCR for specific diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis. J Clin Microbiol 2008; 46: 286289.
  • 141
    Hernández M, Gonzalez LM, Fleury A, et al. Neurocysticercosis: detection of Taenia solium DNA in human cerebrospinal fluid using a semi-nested PCR based on HDP2. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2008; 102: 317323.
  • 142
    Shih YC, Chen CM, Huang YH, Liao CW, Fan CK, Yang CH. Subcutaneous cysticercosis diagnosed by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Int J Dermatol 2010; 49: 672675.
  • 143
    Nkouawa A, Sako Y, Nakao M, nakaya K, Ito A. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 168174.
  • 144
    Borecka A, Gawor J. Modification of gDNA extraction from soil for PCR designed for the routine examination of soil samples contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs. J Helminthol 2008; 82: 119122.
  • 145
    Gottfredsson M, Perfect JR. Fungal meningitis. Semin Neurol 2000; 20: 307322.
  • 146
    Ashbee HR, Evans EG, Viviani MA, et al. Histoplasmosis in Europe: report on an epidemiological survey from the European Confederation of Medical Mycology Working Group. Med Mycol 2008; 46: 5765.
  • 147
    Kauffman CA. Histoplasmosis: a clinical and laboratory update. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007; 20: 115132.
  • 148
    Wheat J, French M, Batteiger B, Kohler R. Cerebrospinal fluid Histoplasma antibodies in central nervous system histoplasmosis. Arch Intern Med 1985; 145: 12371240.
  • 149
    Wheat LJ, Kohler RB, Tewari RP, Garten M, French ML. Significance of Histoplasma antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149: 302304.
  • 150
    Espy MJ, Uhl JR, Sloan LM, et al. Real-time PCR in clinical microbiology: applications for routine laboratory testing. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006; 19: 165256.
  • 151
    Buitrago MJ, Bernal-Martinez L, Castelli MV, et al. Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis in a non-endemic area: a review of cases and diagnosis. J Travel Med 2010; 18: 2633.
  • 152
    Bialek R, González GM, Begerow D, Zelck UE. Coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis: advances in molecular diagnosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2005; 45: 355360.
  • 153
    Saubolle MA. Laboratory aspects in the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007; 1111: 301314.
  • 154
    Davis JA, Costello DJ, Venna N. Laboratory investigation of fungal infections of the central nervous system. Neurol India 2007; 55: 233240.
  • 155
    Vucicevic D, Blair JE, Binnicker MJ, et al. The utility of Coccidioides polymerase chain reaction testing in the clinical setting. Mycopathologia 2010; 170: 345351.
  • 156
    Saha DC, Xess I, Biswas A, Bhowmik DM, Padma MV. Detection of Cryptococcus by conventional, serological and molecular methods. J Med Microbiol 2009; 58: 10981105.
  • 157
    Rappelli P, Are R, Casu G, Fiori PL, Cappuccinelli P, Aceti A. Development of a nested PCR for detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 34383440.
  • 158
    Paschoal RC, Hirata MH, Hirata RC, Melhem Mde S, Dias AL, Paula CR. Neurocryptococcosis: diagnosis by PCR method. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2004; 46: 203207.
  • 159
    Iyer RS, Banker DD. Cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS. Indian J Med Sci 2002; 56: 593597.
  • 160
    Iyer RS, Pal RB, Patel RY, Banker DD. Polymerase chain reaction based diagnosis of systemic fungal infections and sensitivity testing of the fungal isolates. Indian J Med Microbiol 2002; 20: 132136.
  • 161
    Voice RA, Bradley SF, Sangeorzan JA, Kauffman CA. Chronic candidal meningitis: an uncommon manifestation of candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 19: 6066.
  • 162
    Verduyn Lunel FM, Voss A, Kuijper EJ, et al. Detection of the Candida antigen mannan in cerebrospinal fluid specimens from patients suspected of having Candida meningitis. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 867870.
  • 163
    Schabereiter-Gurtner C, Selitsch B, Rotter ML, Hirschl AM, Willinger B. Development of novel real-time PCR assays for detection and differentiation of eleven medically important Aspergillus and Candida species in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2007; 45: 906914.
  • 164
    Klingspor L, Jalal S. Molecular detection and identification of Candida and Aspergillus spp. from clinical samples using real-time PCR. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12: 745753.
  • 165
    Elsayed S, Fitzgerald V, Massey V, Hussain Z. Evaluation of the Candigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitative detection of Candida species antigen. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001; 125: 344346.
  • 166
    Ralph ED, Hussain Z. Chronic meningitis caused by Candida albicans in a liver transplant recipient: usefulness of the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis and for monitoring treatment. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23: 191192.
  • 167
    Verweij PE, Brinkman K, Kremer HP, Kullberg BJ, Meis JF. Aspergillus meningitis: diagnosis by non-culture-based microbiological methods and management. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 11861189.
  • 168
    Viscoli C, Machetti M, Gazzola P, et al. Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid of bone marrow transplant recipients with probable cerebral aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 2002; 40: 14961499.
  • 169
    Machetti M, Zotti M, Veroni L, et al. Antigen detection in the diagnosis and management of a patient with probable cerebral aspergillosis treated with voriconazole. Transplant Infect Dis 2000; 2: 140144.
  • 170
    Kami M, Fukui T, Ogawa S, et al. Use of real-time PCR on blood samples for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33: 15041512.
  • 171
    Kami M, Shirouzu I, Mitani K, et al. Early diagnosis of central nervous system aspergillosis with combination use of cerebral diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance image and polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid. Intern Med 1999; 38: 4548.
  • 172
    Lass-Florl C, Gunsilius E, Gastl G, et al. Diagnosing invasive aspergillosis during antifungal therapy by PCR analysis of blood samples. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 41544157.
  • 173
    Kami M, Ogawa S, Kanda Y, et al. Early diagnosis of central nervous system aspergillosis using polymerase chain reaction, latex agglutination test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Br J Haematol 1999; 106: 536537.
  • 174
    Verweij PE, Dompeling EC, Donnelly JP, Schattenberg AV, Meis JF. Serial monitoring of Aspergillus antigen in the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Preliminary investigations with two examples. Infection 1997; 25: 8689.
  • 175
    Komatsu H, Fujisawa T, Inui A, et al. Molecular diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis by sequence analysis with panfungal polymerase chain reaction. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2004; 26: 4044.
  • 176
    Hummel M, Spiess B, Kentouche K, et al. Detection of Aspergillus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with cerebral aspergillosis by a nested PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 39893993.
  • 177
    Moling O, Lass-Floerl C, Verweij PE, et al. Case reports. Chronic and acute Aspergillus meningitis. Mycoses 2002; 45: 504511.
  • 178
    Roden MM, Zaoutis TE, Buchanan WL, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: a review of 929 reported cases. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41: 634653.
  • 179
    Skiada A, Pagano L, Groll A, et al. Zygomycosis in Europe: analysis of 230 cases accrued by the registry of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) Working Group on Zygomycosis between 2005 and 2007. Clin Microbiol Infect 2011; 17: 18591867.
  • 180
    Rickerts V, Just-Nubling G, Konrad F, et al. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients by seminested PCR assay of tissue samples. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2006; 25: 813.
  • 181
    Bialek R, Konrad F, Kern J, et al. PCR based identification and discrimination of agents of mucormycosis and aspergillosis in paraffin wax embedded tissue. J Clin Pathol 2005; 58: 11801184.