ABSTRACT. A recent article in this journal concluded that West Virginia's low labor force participation rates cannot be attributed to economic, demographic, or institutional factors and that they probably result from an Appalachian culture which has a strong preference for non-market activities. This article reviews the diverse social science literature on determinants of labor force participation and then takes a closer look at Appalachian participation. It presents and uses a more comprehensive model, focuses on the county level instead of the state, and examines variations within Appalachia and over time. The main findings are that the Appalachian labor force gap is either nonexistent or very small and that there is no statistical evidence of a unique or pervasive Appalachian cultural effect. Appalachian labor force behavior appears to be quite average given the conditions faced by Appalachians.