1 J. Dillon, The Middle Platonists, (London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., 1977) xiii.
2 Moore provides a useful summary of Middle Platonism in the Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, which is clearly based upon Dillon's book (Online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/m/midplato.htm).
3 More detailed study: R. M. Grant, Greek Apologists of the Second Century, (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1988) 61f.
4 Dillon, Middle Platonists, 6
5 Dillon, Middle Platonists, 3–6
6 D. J. Zeyl, Plato: Timaeus, (Cambridge: Hackett Publishing, 2000) xxii. There may be a reference to the Forms in Timaeus 53d (cf. A. E. Taylor, A Commentary on Plato's Timaeus, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1928) 32). There may be a reference to the Demiurge in Republic VII 530a (cf. R. D. Mohr, The Platonic Cosmology, (Leiden: Brill, 1985) 10).
7 Letters II 312e-313a. ‘Are these letters, or any of them genuine? We have no way of knowing for sure. We have no record of any Platonic letters existing before the end of the third century BC, some one hundred fifty years or more after the nominal date of composition … Our manuscripts report a doubt (perhaps going back to Thrasyllus) about Letter XII's authenticity, and from their content others can hardly be by Plato’ (J. M. Cooper (ed.), Plato: Complete Works, (Cambridge: Hackett Publishing, 1997) 1634–5).
8 D. Winston, Philo of Alexandria: The Contemplative Life, The Giants and Selections, (Ramsey: Paulist Press, 1981) 22.
9 Winston, Philo, 23, citing: LA 3:36, 1:36, 51, 3:206; Deus. 55:56; Cher. 67; cf. Dillon, Middle Platonists, 155.
10 Philo believes that both creations can be found in Genesis.
11 Wolfson proposed that Philo adopted the term due to Stoic influence (H. A. Wolfson, Philo: Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism, Christianity and Islam, (Harvard University Press, 1947), 253), but Goodenough objected that Philo's Logos is ‘essentially unlike anything in Stoicism except the term’ (E. R. Goodenough, An Introduction of Philo Judaeus, (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1962) 94). The probability is that Philo took the term from other Platonists, such as Eudorus of Alexandria (Dillon, Middle Platonists, 128, contra R. M. Grant, Gods and the One God: Christian Theology in the Graeco-Roman World, (London: SPCK, 1986) 85). In Jewish Wisdom literature (Proverbs, Ben Sira, Wisdom of Solomon) the creative function is ascribed to Wisdom, which is also named the Logos. This probably explains Philo's reason for identifying the Logos as the creative principle.
12 Dillon, Middle Platonists, 157–9; also see D. Winston, Philo, 22–3.
13 Wolfson, Philo, 256; Goodenough, Philo, 102.
14 e.g. On Providence (frag.1).
15 pace F. Young, ‘Two Roots or a Tangled Mess’, in The Myth of God Incarnate, (ed. J. Hick, London: SCM Press, 1977) 114.
16 Dillon, Middle Platonists, 367
17 Philo, Quis Her.205
18 Philo, Quis Her.234
19 Goodenough, Philo, 100–2
20 K. S. Guthrie, Numenius of Apamea: The Father of Neo-Platonism, (George Bell & Sons, 1917) 191.
21 Numenius does refer to Plato as ‘a Moses who reveals Greek tendencies’ (frag.13) but his fragments, preserved by Christian writers, may well have been the victim of interpolation.
22 Numenius frag.27a:8
23 Dillon, Middle Platonists, 374
24 ‘The First God, who exists in himself, is simply; for as he absolutely deals with none but himself, he is in no way divisible’ (frag.26:3). ‘The First God may not undertake creation’ (frag.27a). ‘The First God is free from all labour, inasmuch as he is King’ (frag.27a:8)
25 Dialogue ch2
26 Price questions Justin's dependence on Middle Platonism, stating that ‘Logos’ was a Stoic term and not used frequently by the Platonist. He proposes that Justin, like John, derives his Logos doctrine from Jewish sources. ( ‘Hellenization’ and Logos Doctrine in Justin Martyr’, Vigiliae Christianae 42.1, 1988). However, we know that the term ‘Logos’ was used by Philo, Eudorus and Plutarch. In any case, Justin's dependence on the Platonist is not determined solely by his use of the term ‘Logos’ but also the origins and function he ascribes to the Logos. (Dillon notes that the absence of the term in other Middle Platonic literature ‘may be a function of the inadequate evidence we possess for the period’– Dillon, , ‘Middle Platonists, 4).
27 Wisdom and the Goddess’, Christadelphian EJournal of Biblical Interpretation 2.1, 2008, 46–53. , ‘
28 First Apology 32; Dialogue 61;
29 Dialogue 60
30 E. R. Goodenough, The Theology of Justin Martyr, (Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1968) 148.
31 Dialogue 128
32 ‘Though it ignites many other fires, [it] still remains the same undiminished fire.’ (Dialogue 61; 128;); cf. ‘This can be seen when one candle receives light from another by mere touch; the fire was not taken away from the other, but its component Matter was kindled by the fire of the other.’ (Numenius, frag.29.16).
33 First Apology 53; Second Apology 6; Dialogue 127;
34 First Apology 63; Dialogue 127;
35 ‘God is the Being who always has the same nature in the same manner.’ (Dialogue 3)
36 ‘No proper name has been bestowed upon God, the Father of all, since He is unbegotten. For whoever as a proper name received it from a person older than himself.’ (Second Apology 6)
37 Dillon suggests that Philo may have been the first writer to describe God as ineffable and unnameable (Dillon, Middle Platonists, 155).
38 First Apology 13, 58, 63; Second Apology 60 (cf. Timaeus 36b-c); R. A. Norris, God and World in Early Christian Theology: A Study on Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian and Origen, (London: Adam & Charles Black, 1966), 48; T. B. Fall, Writings of Saint Justin Martyr, (Catholic University of America Press, 1948) 97n.
39 First Apology 13
40 First Apology 60 (cf. Plato, Letters II.312e). Grant proposes that Justin's was acquainted with this passage through Numenius, rather than direct acquaintance with Plato's writings (Grant, Apologists, 60). However, Justin also quotes from the Timaeus, so we cannot rule out direct acquaintance with Plato's works.
41 Goodenough, Justin Martyr, 176
42 First Apology 36; ‘Sometimes the Spirit which inspired is called the Holy Spirit, sometimes the Prophetic Spirit, sometimes the Logos and sometimes God.’ (Goodenough, Justin Martyr, 180).
43 Address to the Greeks 4
44 Address to the Greeks 4; cf. Grant, Apologists, 144
45 Athenagoras, Embassy for the Christians 10.2; cf. Grant, Apologists, 157
46 Grant, Apologists, 62
47 Menander (I Corinthians 15:33); Epimenides (Titus 1:12–13); Aratus (Acts 17:28);
48 Colossians 2:8; I Corinthians 1:18–25
49 Grant, Gods and the One God, 12f; F. Young, ‘Greek Apologists of the Second Century’, in Apologetics in the Roman Empire, (M. Edwards, M. Goodman & S. Price (eds.), Oxford University Press, 1999) 83f.
50 Dillon, Middle Platonists, 204
51 Diognetus 2:1–10
52 Diognetus 3:1–4; 4
53 Diognetus 7:2
54 ‘He sent the Craftsman and maker of all things.’ (Diognetus 7:2)
55 Apology III [Syriac]
56 Apology XIV [Syriac]
57 Republic II.377d–391d
58 Apology I [Greek]
59 cp. Aristotle, Metaphysics XII.6–9
60 Apology I [Syriac], cp. Greek
61 ‘J. Armitage Robinson marshals evidence to show that the Preaching lies behind both the Apology of Aristides and our Epistle’ (H. G. Meecham, The Epistle to Diognetus, (Manchester University Press, 1949) 58). ‘Douket and Kihn advocated the view that the Apology of Aristides and the Epistle to Diognetus came from the same hand.’ (Meecham, Diognetus, 59).
62 Preaching of Peter 2, quoted Stromata 6.5.39
63 Preaching of Peter 1, quoted Stromata 6.5.39
64 Preaching of Peter 2, quoted Stromata 6.5.39
65 Romans 2:24, (I Timothy 6:1),
66 Paul argues that Creation itself manifests God's ‘invisible attributes’ and so all men can know God (Romans 1:18–21)
67 I Corinthians 3:16, II Corinthians 6:16, Ephesians 2:2, 4:6,
68 Acts 17:27
69 Philippians 2:13
70 Romans 1:20–21
71 J. Dillon, ‘Logos and Trinity: Patterns of Platonist Influence on Early Christianity’, in The Philosophy in Christianity, (G. Vesey (ed.), Cambridge University Press, 1989).