The research for this article was funded by a British Academy Small Grant. The author is also grateful to the copyright holder for permission to quote from Kate Courtney's papers and to the anonymous reviewers and James Bothwell for their comments on earlier versions of this article.
The women pro-Boers: gender, peace and the critique of empire in the South African war†
Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012
Copyright © 2012 Institute of Historical Research
Volume 86, Issue 231, pages 92–115, February 2013
How to Cite
Riedi, E. (2013), The women pro-Boers: gender, peace and the critique of empire in the South African war. Historical Research, 86: 92–115. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2281.2012.00612.x
- Issue published online: 11 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012
- 1The Empire Strikes Back? The Impact of Imperialism on Britain from the Mid-19th Century (Harlow, 2005), p. 142.,
- 2‘Pro-Boer’, the term pinned upon critics of the war by their opponents, has been adopted by historians, despite its inaccuracy, as a convenient shorthand; for simplicity it will hereafter be used without quotation marks.
- 3See, e.g., Anti-war sentiment in Britain during the Boer War’ (unpublished St. Louis University Ph.D. thesis, 1972); M. Ceadel , Semi-Detached Idealists: the British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1854–1945 (Oxford, 2000), ch. 6; , The British Pro-Boers 1877–1902 (Cape Town, 1978); The Pro-Boers: the Anatomy of an Antiwar Movement, ed. S. E. Koss (Chicago, Ill., 1973); , ‘The British peace movement and the war’, in The Impact of the South African War, ed. D. E. Omissi and A. S. Thompson (Basingstoke, 2002), pp. 138–156; , The British Peace Movement, 1870–1914 (Oxford, 2001), ch. 6; , Critics of Empire: British Radicals and the Imperial Challenge (2nd edn., 2008); , ‘The pro-Boers in Britain’, in The South African War: the Anglo-Boer War, 1899–1902, ed. P. Warwick and S. B. Spies (Harlow, 1980), pp. 239–257; , An Imperial War and the British Working Class: Working-Class Attitudes and Reactions to the Boer War, 1899–1902 (1972); , ‘The pro-Boers: war, empire, and the uses of nostalgia in turn-of-the-century England’, in Singular Continuities: Tradition, Nostalgia, and Identity in Modern British Culture, ed. G. K. Behlmer and F. M. Leventhal (Stanford, Calif., 2000), pp. 43–57., ‘
- 4‘The Truest Form of Patriotism’: Pacifist Feminism in Britain, 1870–1902 (Manchester, 2003), p. 179.,
- 5For the concentration camps, see, e.g., That Miss Hobhouse (1971); , ‘“The last of the gentlemen's wars”: women in the Boer war concentration camp controversy’, History Workshop Jour., xxxiii (1992), 38–56 and Gender, Race, and the Writing of Empire: Public Discourse and the Boer War (Cambridge, 1999), chs. 2–3; , The Boer War (1979), chs. 38–39; , ‘Women and the war’, in Warwick and Spies, pp. 161–185; , ‘Women and gender in the South African war, 1899–1902’, in Women in South African History: they Remove Boulders and Cross Rivers, ed. N. Gasa (Cape Town, 2007), pp. 91–125.,
- 6173; , The Long Road to Greenham: Feminism and Anti-Militarism since 1820 (1989), p. 43; , ‘Liberal women's organizations and the war against the Boers, 1899–1902’, Albion, xiv (1982), 27–49. Women's involvement is more briefly discussed in Ashman, pp. 142–145; , esp. pp. 91–95, 105–6 (though her chapter on the South African war discusses only Hobhouse and two pro-war activists, Millicent Garrett Fawcett and Josephine Butler); , Isabella Ford (Oxford, 1989), pp. 83–84; , Bringing the Empire Home: Race, Class, and Gender in Britain and Colonial South Africa (Chicago, Ill., 2004), pp. 124–128; , Women against the Iron Fist: Alternatives to Militarism 1900–89 (Oxford, 1989), pp. 22–29., p.
- 7‘Women and the war’, Ethical World, 17 Nov. 1900. For Elmy's views on the war, see , ‘Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy: a biography’ (unpublished University of Portsmouth Ph.D. thesis, 2007), pp. 200–207.
- 8For the causes of the war, see The Origins of the South African War, 1899–1902 (1996); for overviews of the war, see, e.g., , The South African War, 1899–1902 (1999).,
- 10passim; Women's Liberal Federation Council Meeting (1900).,
- 11Burdens of History: British Feminists, Indian Women, and Imperial Culture, 1865–1915 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1994), p. 185.,
- 12151, 159–60; , British Peace Movement, pp. 158–165; Herald of Peace, 2 Apr. 1900., pp.
- 1392; , Hedge of Wild Almonds: South Africa, the Pro-Boers, and the Quaker Conscience, 1890–1910 (1989); , ‘British Quakers and the South African war’, Quaker Hist., lxiv (1975), 75–95; British Quakerism, 1860–1920: the Transformation of a Religious Community (Oxford, 2001), ch. 10; also , ‘Quaker women and the pacifist impulse in Britain, 1900–20’, in The Pacifist Impulse in Historical Perspective, ed. H. L. Dyck (Toronto, 1996), pp. 182–206., p.
- 14H. M. Hyndman and British Socialism, ed. H. M. Pelling (Oxford, 1961), pp. 127–130; Glasgow Herald, 25 Sept. 1899.,
- 15Red Flag and Union Jack: Englishness, Patriotism and the British Left, 1881–1924 (Woodbridge, 1998), ch. 4; , ‘The Fabian Society and the South African war, 1899–1902’, South African Historical Jour., x (1978), 65–78. The other women Fabians were Margaret MacDonald, Jeannie Mole, Mary Lacey and Miss L. E. Zimmerman.,
- 17Pro-Boers’, p. 250., ‘
- 18My Book of Memory: a String of Reminiscences and Reflections (1923), pp. 178–180; War against War in South Africa (hereafter W.A.W.S.A.), 19 Jan. 1900.,
- 19The Life of W. T. Stead (2 vols., 1926), ii. 172. When War against War in South Africa ceased weekly publication in Apr. 1900 (continuing as a monthly until Aug.), the New Age became ‘practically … the organ of the Committee’ (New Age, 3 May 1900; Stop-the-War Committee, Report and Statement of Accounts from January 11 to December 31, 1900 (1901)).,
- 2024., p.
- 211899, in J. Hobhouse Balme , To Love One's Enemies: the Work and Life of Emily Hobhouse (Cobble Hill, British Columbia, 1994), p. 31. For Courtney's anti-war activism, see , ch. 2, esp. pp. 22–29.Courtney to Leonard Hobhouse, 2 Nov.
- 2277–79; London School of Economics, British Library of Political and Economic Science (hereafter B.L.P.E.S.), Courtney papers 29, Kate Courtney diary, 18 Dec. 1899, 19 Jan. 1900., pp.
- 23The South Africa Conciliation Committee (list of members dated 17 March 1900); Minutes of the General Committee Meeting at the Westminster Palace Hotel, Thursday, April 5th, 1900; The Work of the South Africa Conciliation Committee [n.d., late 1900]; Reformers' Year Book, 1901, p. 54. Price (p. 18) claims that half the total membership was contained in the Liverpool branch, but an examination of the list of members indicates that branch figures should be considered separately from those given by the central S.A.C.C. Liverpool had 200 members in Apr. 1900 and 800 by Nov. 1900. Bradford had 217 in March 1900 (Liverpool Mercury, 3 Apr. 1900; Reformers' Year Book, 1901, p. 54; Labour Leader, 24 March 1900).
- 24Supplement to War against War in South Africa, 9 March 1900; , ‘The pamphlet campaign on the Boer war’, Jour. Modern Hist., xxiv (1952), 111–126.
- 25The Land of Free Speech: Record of a Campaign on Behalf of Peace in England and Scotland in 1900 (1906). Olive Schreiner herself, although tied to South Africa by ill-health, nevertheless influenced the pro-Boer movement both through her publications, such as An English South African's View of the Situation (1899), and through her personal communications, her private letters being published in W.A.W.S.A. and read out at anti-war meetings (see , pp. 50–52, especially for her presentation of the Boers as a simple, pastoral people).,
- 26W.A.W.S.A., 9 Feb. 1900. For Jane Cobden Unwin, see , ‘“You know your father's heart”: the Cobden sisterhood and the legacy of Richard Cobden’, in Rethinking 19th Century Liberalism: Richard Cobden Bicentenary Essays, ed. A. Howe and S. Morgan (Aldershot, 2006), pp. 229–246.
- 27W.A.W.S.A., 19 Jan., 16 Feb. 1900. The signatories of the women's manifesto (near-identical to the S.T.W.C.'s original manifesto which appealed to the nation to ‘Stop the war and stop it now!’) were Priscilla Bright McLaren, Helen Bright Clark, Anna Maria Priestman, Mary Priestman, Margaret Tanner, Sophia Sturge, Eliza M. Sturge, P. H. Peckover, Elizabeth Spence Watson, Ruth Homan, Eleanor Passmore Edwards, Annie Leigh Browne, Emma Massingham, Sarah M. K. Kingsley and Amie Hicks. Although W.A.W.S.A. described them as ‘representative women’ in fact they were mostly Quakers.
- 28Supplement to War Against War in South Africa, 9 March 1900.
- 29Summary of Federation News (hereafter S.F.N.), Dec. 1899; W.A.W.S.A., 24 Nov. 1899, 19 Jan. 1900; New Age, 25 Jan., 1 Feb., 8 Feb., 15 Feb., 1 March 1900; , British Peace Movement, p. 164; , ‘Kinship and friendship: Quaker women's networks and the women's movement’, Women's History Rev., xiv (2005), 365–384.
- 30W.A.W.S.A., 10 Nov. 1899, 5 Jan. 1900; names and addresses of collectors cross-referenced against the 1901 census. Of the 142 collectors, 37 were women; eight of these, including Priscilla Peckover, lived in Wisbech and were presumably associated with Peckover's Wisbech Local Peace Association.
- 31A Reconstructed World: a Feminist Biography of Gertrude Richardson (Montreal, 1996), pp. 25–33; Morning Leader, 20 Sept. 1899; Midland Free Press, 31 March 1900, 5 May 1900; Leicester Daily Post, 22 Dec. 1899, 2 Jan. 1900, 9 Jan. 1900.,
- 32New Age, 31 May, 23 Aug. 1900.
- 34The South Africa Conciliation Committee (list of members dated 17 March 1900). For Dora Montefiore's tax resistance, see , From a Victorian to a Modern (1927), ch. 6. The other women members of the literature committee were Constance Hargrove, Mrs. Ashton Jonson and Amy (Mrs. Frederick) Mackarness.
- 35S.A.C.C. pamphlet no. 18, Aims and Methods [n.d., 1899].
- 36Bristol Mercury, 13 Oct. 1899, 12 Feb. 1900; South Africa Conciliation Committee (Bristol Branch) 2nd Annual Report [n.d., 1902].
- 37Midland Free Press, 26 May 1900, 29 Dec. 1900; pamphlet signed by Catherine Gittins and Alexander C. Wilson, dated 20 Apr. 1900; Leicester Society for the Promotion of Peace pamphlet, dated 23 Nov. 1900. For Gittins, see , Records of 19th Century Leicester (St. Peter Port, 1935), pp. 143–147.
- 38234–237; S.A.C.C., Minutes of General Committee Meeting at the Westminster Palace Hotel, Thursday, April 5th, 1900 [n.d., 1900]; , p. 37; B.L.P.E.S., Courtney papers 29, Kate Courtney diary, 25 Apr. 1900., pp.
- 391900, in Balme, pp. 39–40. See also The Speaker, 5 May 1900.to Leonard Hobhouse, 10 May
- 40J. M. Escreet , The Life of Edna Lyall (Ada Ellen Bayly) (1904), pp. 202–203.to Mrs. Bradby, 28 May 1900, quoted in
- 41The Work of the South Africa Conciliation Committee [n.d., 1900].
- 42Emily Hobhouse: Boer War Letters, ed. R. Van Reenan (Cape Town, 1984), pp. 18–19; B.L.P.E.S., Courtney papers 29, Kate Courtney diary, 3 Apr. 1900.
- 43S.F.N., May 1900; Cronwright-Schreiner, p. 289; Bristol University Special Collections, DM851, flyer for the women's meeting in Jane Cobden Unwin's papers; West Sussex Record Office (hereafter W.S.R.O.), Cobden MS. 973 (f574G), Courtney envelope, Kate Courtney to Jane Cobden Unwin, 25 Apr. 1900.
- 44385; B.L.P.E.S., Courtney papers 29, Kate Courtney diary, Aug. 1900., p.
- 45155; B.L.P.E.S., Courtney papers 29, Kate Courtney diary, Aug. 1900. Ceadel's description might also be applied to the Liverpool meeting of Jan. 1900 discussed below. Courtney had optimistically proposed leaving space in the programme ‘on the chance of … one of the Liberal leaders coming out of their tents’ (W.S.R.O., Cobden MS. 973 (f574G), Courtney envelope, Courtney to Jane Cobden Unwin, 25 Apr. 1900)., p.
- 46See, e.g., Manchester Guardian, 14 June 1900; Daily News, 14 June 1900; The Times, 14 June 1900; Reynolds's Newspaper, 17 June 1900; New Age, 21 June 1900.
- 47W.A.W.S.A., 6 July 1900.
- 48The Times, 6 Oct. 1899; Leeds Mercury, 27 Sept. 1900; Co-operative News, 1 Dec. 1900 (report sent in by a W.C.G. delegate, ‘thinking that on so important a matter other guild members may like to hear somewhat of the proceedings’); see also , p. 84. For the W.C.G.'s later pacifism, see, e.g., , ‘The mothers' international: the Women's Co-operative Guild and feminist pacifism’, Women's Studies International Forum, vii (1984), 467–476; Caring and Sharing: the Centenary History of the Co-operative Women's Guild (Manchester, 1983), pp. 109–113; , Feminism and the Politics of Working Women: the Women's Co-operative Guild, 1880s to the Second World War (1998), pp. 213–223.
- 49Liberal women's organizations’, p. 28; Herald of Peace, 1 Feb. 1900; New Age, 8 March 1900. See also British Library, Cobden Unwin papers, Additional MS. 52416 fo. 146, letter from Priscilla Bright McLaren, Edinburgh Evening News, 25 Apr. 1901., ‘
- 50S.F.N., Feb. 1900, Apr. 1900, March 1901.
- 51S.F.N., Aug. 1900; New Age, 26 July 1900.
- 52S.F.N., Oct. 1899.
- 53Morning Leader, 7 Oct. 1899.
- 54S.F.N., Dec. 1899.
- 55S.F.N., Feb. 1900; , ‘Liberal women's organizations’, passim; The Times, 14 June 1900; Manchester Guardian, 9 May, 10 May 1901. For dissension at local level, see, e.g., Rose Derry to the editor, Sheffield & Rotherham Independent, 1 Feb. 1900. While the Welsh W.L.A.s were decidedly anti-war (U. Masson, ‘“For women, for Wales and for Liberalism”: women in Liberal politics in Wales, c.1883–1914’ (unpublished University of the West of England Ph.D. thesis, 2007), pp. 57–8, 152), the Scottish W.L.F. accurately reflected both the strength of Liberal imperialism in Scotland and the imperialism of its president Lady Helen Munro-Ferguson (see Glasgow Herald, 11 Apr. 1900 and National Library of Scotland, Ac. 11765 22–23, Scottish W.L.F. executive committee minutes).
- 56The pro-Boer movement in Liverpool’, Trans. Unitarian Hist. Soc., xii (1960), 69–84; Liverpool Mercury, 3 Apr. 1900; Reformers' Year Book, 1901, p. 54. In March 1900 Rathbone collected signatures to a resolution on peace terms, writing ‘I think [the Boers] ask too little … they ought to have … their flag, the name of Republic, and no British governor. I cannot see that all this is not compatible with the strictest precaution against armament and the oppression of the Uitlander’ ( , Sir Oliver Lodge (1974), p. 154)., ‘
- 57Democracy and Sectarianism: a Political and Social History of Liverpool, 1868–1939 (Liverpool, 1981), p. 182; Fabian News, Apr. 1900. For Jeannie Mole and Nessie Stewart-Brown, see , Mrs Brown is a Man and a Brother: Women in Merseyside's Political Organisations, 1890–1920 (Liverpool, 2004), although no mention is made of their pro-Boer activism.,
- 58The Friend, 13 Apr. 1900. There was, however, ‘much difference of opinion’ within the society over the war (Herald of Peace, 1 May 1900).
- 59S.F.N., Oct. 1899; Liverpool Mercury, 27 Sept. 1899.
- 60S.F.N., Feb. 1900; Manchester Guardian, 25 Jan. 1900; Liverpool Mercury, 25 Jan. 1900.
- 61Manchester Guardian, 25 Jan., 10 Feb. 1900.
- 62294–302; Manchester Guardian, 8 May 1900., pp.
- 63Scott, Rachel Susan (1848–1905)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004) <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/48419> [accessed 14 June 2012]; Manchester Guardian, 26 Apr. 1900, 26 Apr. 1901, 16 Oct. 1901. See also, e.g., New Age, 26 July 1900, for her address to Hanley Labour Church on ‘Lessons of the war’., ‘
- 64Liberal women's organizations’, pp. 43–44., ‘
- 65Yorkshire Observer, 20 July 1931; , p. 47; Women's National Liberal Association, Quarterly Leaflet, Apr. 1903. Annie's husband W. P. Byles was treasurer of Bradford S.A.C.C.
- 66W.N.L.A., Quarterly Leaflet, Jan. 1900, Apr. 1900, July 1901; Manchester Guardian, 16 May 1901.
- 67See, e.g., The Conservative party, patriotism, and British politics: the case of the general election of 1900’, Jour. British Stud., xl (2001), 107–145; “Brimful of patriotism”: Welsh Conservatives, the South African war and the “khaki” election of 1900’, in Wales and War: Society, Politics and Religion in the 19th and 20th Centuries, ed. M. Cragoe and C. Williams (Cardiff, 2007); I. Sharpe, ‘Empire, patriotism and the working-class electorate: the 1900 general election in the Battersea constituency’, Parliamentary Hist., xxviii (2009), 392–412., ‘
- 68Sharpe, p. 392; W.N.L.A., Quarterly Leaflet, Oct. 1900.
- 69The Gentlewoman, 10 Nov. 1900.
- 70W.N.L.A., Quarterly Leaflet, Oct. 1900.
- 71The Gentlewoman, 20 Oct., 17 Nov. 1900. For Wellingborough W.L.A.'s anti-war activism, see , Memories of Midland Politics, 1885–1910 (1918), pp. 240–243; Daily News, 14 July 1900.
- 72The Friend, 26 Jan. 1900.
- 73British Peace Movement, pp. 7–9; , The Radical Countess: the History of the Life of Rosalind, Countess of Carlisle (Carlisle, 1962), p. 162; Women's Liberal Federation Council Meeting (1900).,
- 74British Peace Movement, p. 9.,
- 75The Friend, 14 July, 8 Sept. 1899.
- 76New Age, 22 March 1900.
- 77W.N.L.A., Quarterly Leaflet, Jan. 1902.
- 78Women's Liberal Federation Council Meeting (1900); S.F.N., Sept. 1901.
- 79W.S.R.O., Cobden MS. 973 (f570G), Ellen Hickmott, Sevenoaks, to Jane Cobden Unwin, 12 March 1900. The anti-Semitism notable in Hobson and many other Liberal and Labour commentators is, however, strikingly absent: even ‘E. G.’, in attacking the ‘Jew capitalist’ in the New Age's women's column (19 Oct. 1899), nevertheless defended ‘the Jew fellow worker’.
- 80Native Races and the War (1900); , ‘“States of injury”: Josephine Butler on slavery, citizenship, and the Boer war’, in Women's Suffrage in the British Empire: Citizenship, Nation, and Race, ed. I. C. Fletcher , L. E. Nym Mayhall and P. Levine (2000), pp. 18–32; C. Hirshfield , ‘Blacks, Boers, and Britons: the antiwar movement in England and the “native issue”, 1899–1902’, Peace & Change, viii (1982), 21–34, at p. 22.,
- 81Eighth Annual Report of the Liverpool and Birkenhead Women's Peace and Arbitration Society (1894); The Friend, 24 Nov. 1899; New Age, 21 Sept., 5 Oct. 1899.
- 82Women's Liberal Federation Council Meeting (1900); , p. 72. For the Indian famine of 1899–1900, see, e.g., , Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World (2001), ch. 5.
- 83New Age, 21 Sept., 5 Oct., 19 Oct. 1899; Aberdeen Weekly Journal, 21 May 1900. For Mayo's analysis of imperialism, influenced both by Tolstoy and by developments in highland Scotland, as ultimately based on the forced alienation of the British working classes from the land, see ‘Note by Isabella Fyvie Mayo’, in L. Tolstoy , A Great Iniquity, trans. V. Tchertkoff and I. F. Mayo (1905), pp. 37–39. For conflicting views of Mayo's anti-racist credentials, see , Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism and History (1992) and , ‘The reputation of Isabella Fyvie Mayo: interpretations of a life’, Women's History Rev., xix (2010), 71–88.
- 84The treatment of subject races’, International Jour. Ethics, x (1900), 417–439., ‘
- 85Madam, the Recent Development of Violence in our Midst (1900); Richardson, p. 239; , ‘The Anti-Slavery and Aborigines' Protection Society and the South African Natives' Land Act of 1913’, Jour. African Hist., xx (1979), 83–102, at pp. 97–9.,
- 86New Age, 21 June 1900.
- 87Manchester Guardian, 14 June 1900.
- 89E.g., W.A.W.S.A., 9 March, 16 March 1900.
- 90Quaker Inheritance, 1871–1961: a Portrait of Roger Clark of Street Based on his own Writings and Correspondence (1970), pp. 119–121.,
- 91Reynolds's Newspaper, 17 June 1900; Justice, 23 June 1900.
- 92Morning Leader, 7 Feb. 1900.
- 93W.A.W.S.A., 16 March 1900.
- 94122–125., pp.
- 95182–187 (see also, e.g., pp. 199–200, 317–19)., pp.
- 96‘His Champion: Mr Leif Jones and the Transvaal Committee did not dare invite Mr Cronwright Schreiner to Manchester. They left it to the Women's Liberal Federation’ (Manchester Times, 11 May 1900). See also, e.g., The Scotsman, 19 March 1900.
- 97Feminism and Democracy: Women's Suffrage and Reform Politics in Britain, 1900–18 (Cambridge, 1986), ch. 1.,
- 98Supplement to War against War in South Africa, 9 March 1900; , Madam, the Recent Development; New Age, 29 March 1900.
- 99In, respectively, Walter Crane's classic ‘Stop the war’ poster and Francis Carruthers Gould's Westminster Gazette cartoon ‘Coming home to him’.
- 100British women and cultures of internationalism, c.1815–1914’, in Structures and Transformations in Modern British History, ed. D. Feldman and J. Lawrence (Cambridge, 2011), pp. 187–209, at pp. 188, 203. Such uncritical sympathy was rarely extended to the Transvaal government, seen by many so-called pro-Boers as bigoted, reactionary and corrupt. Jane Cobden Unwin was exceptional in making a pilgrimage to Paris to tell ex-president Kruger ‘how deeply a great number of people in England regretted this dreadful war’. (‘Poor broken down old man’, she sighed, ‘My heart ached for him’.) Far more typical was Dorothy Bradby's condemnation of Kruger's government as ‘in many ways undesirable’ (Brit. Libr., Cobden Unwin papers, Add. MS. 52416 fos. 139–41, Jane Cobden Unwin to Thomas Fisher Unwin, 25 Nov. 1900; A Victorian Family Postbag (Oxford, 1988), p. 124.), ‘
- 101passim, on the British feminist focus on women in the Indian context.,
- 102Morning Leader, 11 Sept. 1899; New Age, 21 June 1900.
- 103Women's Suffrage: a Short History of a Great Movement (1912), pp. 59–60; S.F.N., Nov. 1899, March 1900.,
- 104Women Uitlanders (1899); , ‘Towards a gendered and raced socialist internationalism: Dora Montefiore encounters South Africa (1912–14)’, African Stud., lxvi (2007), 321–341, at pp. 331–2. New Age, 6 July, 14 Sept. 1899; and Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy, ‘Our “Outlanders” at Home’, Manchester Guardian, 22 Aug. 1899.,
- 105New Age, 22 March 1900.
- 106Ethical World, 1 Dec. 1900.
- 107Liverpool Mercury, 25 Jan. 1900.
- 108Liberal women's organizations’; , ‘The South African war and the origins of suffrage militancy in Britain, 1899–1902’, in Fletcher and others, pp. 3–17., ‘
- 109S.F.N., Aug. 1901; Montefiore, Women Uitlanders.
- 110Visit of the Women's Liberal Federation to Birmingham, 1901, pp. 12–13. Gittins's resolution was lost.
- 11113–23, 39, 91., pp.
- 112Madam, the Recent Development; Liverpool Mercury, 14 Dec. 1900; , ‘Woman and war’, Westminster Review, cliv (1900), 30–32, at p. 30. See also, e.g., Harriet Stanton Blatch's speech, Women's Liberal Federation Council Meeting (1900), p. 23.,
- 113See, e.g., The future of women in politics’ (1915); and and , Militarism versus Feminism: an Enquiry and a Policy Demonstrating that Militarism Involves the Subjection of Women (1915), repr. in Militarism versus Feminism: Writings on Women and War, ed. M. Kamester and J. Vellacott (1987), pp. 43–52, 53–140., ‘
- 114W.N.L.A., Quarterly Leaflet, Oct. 1900.