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Keywords:

  • modern penology;
  • contemporary penology;
  • GPS-electronic monitoring

Abstract: Criminologists have noted a significant reorientation of criminal justice policy. Initially this reorientation was most dramatically articulated by Feeley and Simon (1992), who suggested that penality has shifted from the ‘modern’ to ‘new’ penology. Criticisms of the binary ‘modern’ and ‘new’ penology model has led to the contemporary understanding of penality through a threefold model of: ‘punishment-punitive’, ‘rehabilitative-humanistic’ and ‘managerial-surveillant’ discourses. This research represents an empirically-based attempt to locate GPS-electronic monitoring within this threefold model.